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English version
2013 Volume 8 Issue 4
2013 Volume 8 Issue 5
2013 Volume 8 Issue 6
2014 Volume 9 Issue 1
2015 Volume 10 Issue 1
2015 Volume 10 Issue 2
2015 Volume 10 Issue 3
 

  
Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, August 2013, Volume 8, Number 4 

       

Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology (ISSN: 1673-5897) focuses on fundamental research on the mechanisms of toxicity of the environmental pollutants at the community, species, tissue, cellular, subcellular and molecular levels, including aspects of uptake, metabolism and excretion of toxicants.

We welcome the interdisciplinary studies of environmental chemistry and toxicology describing environmental fate and biological fate of pollutants, novel analytical technologies, techniques, and methods such as biomarkers, biosensors, bioanalytical systems, QSARs and QSPRs.

The applied outcome of complex ecotoxicological research such as

developing the science-based Environmental Quality Criteria (EQC), standard toxicity tests, techniques, and methods for ecotoxicological evaluation of the environment is also within the scope of Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology.

The journal includes not only original research papers but technical notes and review articles, both invited and submitted.

Although most of our papers are written in Chinese, papers written in English are highly welcome.

Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology has been indexed and abstracted in Chemical Abstracts, Biological Abstracts and BIOSIS Previews since 2007.

Mini perspectives
A New Idea in Toxicology: Application of Functional Genomics in Toxicology  PDF download
Jiang Yunshen
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897.20130424005
Abstract: The most advanced technology over the world was required to quantitatively detect various functional molecules in the responding organs, so that the function of the organ can be evaluated. If the Functional Medicine can be applied to the research in toxicology, the early damage induced by the harmful environment factors will be early detected, which would take toxicology studies to a new level.
Citation:Jiang Yunshen.A New Idea in Toxicology: Application of Functional Genomics in Toxicology[J].Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology,2013,8(4):634-635
Reviews
A Review on Application of Loach to Assessing Toxicity of Pollutants  PDF download

Chen Yuming,Lu Shaoyong,Zhu Xu,Hu Jiahui
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897.20120510001
Abstract:For some advantages, such as living in the bottom of water, having strong viability, being easy to cultivate, loach have potency to be a model organism. Exposed to pollutants, loach obviously changed on the level of molecular, cell, tissue, organ and individual, which may affect the survival, growth and reproductive of loach. These attractive characteristics make loach suitable as a candidate fish to assess toxicity of pollutants. Acute toxicity, cumulative toxicity, reproductive toxicity, genotoxicity and other toxicity of pollutants to loachwere reviewed. Perspectives about application of loach to toxicity have been discussed, expecting to contribute to the further research in this field.
Citation:Chen Yuming,Lu Shaoyong,Zhu Xu,Hu Jiahui.A Review on Application of Loach to Assessing Toxicity of Pollutants[J].Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology,2013,8(4):447-455

Antioxidant Mechanism of Plants under Ozone Stress  PDF download
Huang Yizong,Sui Lihua
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897.20120324001
Abstract:As a result of the rapid development of industry and agriculture, the concentration of global tropospheric ozone (O3) is increasing continuously, which has detrimental influence on animals, plants and microbes in terrestrial ecosystem, as well as is harmful to human health. Effects of O3 on plants especially on crops which relate to food safety have recently been increasingly reported. Ozone enters plant tissue through the opening stomata, and induces plant to produce active oxidant species (AOS), such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide (O2-·), hydroxyl radicals (·OH) and etc., which can damage membrane system of plant and reduce net photosynthesis. At the same time plants have the ability to scavenge AOS through closing the stomata to reduce the input of O3 or increasing the activities of the antioxidant enzymes and the content of non-enzymatic, which enhance plant defending O3 stress. Non-enzymatic, including ascorbic acid, carotenoid, some low molecular thiol-containing compounds (such as glutathione) and etc., can scavenge AOS through some chemical reactions. Ascorbic acid can remove AOS by reacting with superoxide, single oxygen, ozone and hydroxide. Carotenoids are effective in scavenging AOS to protect chlorophyll from ozone damage. As an important part of ascorbic-glutathione system, glutathione plays an important role in scavenging AOS. Antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), and mono-dehydroascorbate reductase (MDAR) also play an important role in scavenging AOS. The mechanism of the O3-induced damage to plant and their antioxidant system is complicated. On the basis of the summation of antioxidant mechanism of plants under ozone stress, some problems and suggestions are discussed in this paper.
Citation:Huang Yizong,Sui Lihua.Antioxidant Mechanism of Plants under Ozone Stress[J].Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology,2013,8(4):456-464
A Review on the Occurrence and Ecotoxicity of Organic UV Filters in Environment  PDF download

Gao Li,Yuan Tao,Wang Wenhua
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897.20120623001
Abstract:A large number of UV filters extensively occurred in personal care products (PCPs) daily consumed by people, which are released into environment. They become a kind of emerging pollutants. The occurrences of UV filters in environment and their ecotoxicology effects have been widely concerned. This paper reviewed the research development on the occurrences and ecotoxicity studies of the organic UV filters. First, a general introduction of organic UV filters in personal care products was summarized. Second, the environmental concentrations reported in different mediums such as surface water, sediments and biota around the world were described. Finally, the ecotoxicity effects of organic UV filters in the aquatic environment were discussed, especially for the endocrine disruption effects on fish and the acute toxicity effects on invertebrates. This review provides the useful references and some research directions for future studies. The information is helpful for the risk assessments of these new emerging contaminants.
Citation:Gao Li,Yuan Tao,Wang Wenhua.A Review on the Occurrence and Ecotoxicity of Organic UV Filters in Environment [J].Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology,2013,8(4):465- 472

Advances in the Research on Pollution Investigations and Environmental, Ecological, and Health Risks from E-Waste Recycling Activities in China  PDF download
Yuan Jiangang,Zheng Jing,Chen Senlin,Li Jing,Li Han,Xiao Di,Yu Xiaohua,Luo Yong,Yan Xiao,Yang Zhongyi,Luo Xiaojun,Mai Bixian
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897.20120428001
Abstract:Electronic wastes contain a lot of toxic metals, plastics and fire retardants, inadequate E-waste recycling activities may bring serious environmental pollutions. Scholars in recent years have paid great attention to the environmental problems caused by e-waste disposal The studies were mainly in the several important E-waste recycling areas in China. In this paper, surveys and researches on environmental pollutions caused by e-waste recycling activities published in recent 5 years are reviewed. The researches related to the main released pollutants, as well as the negative impacts on soil, water, air, living organisms and exposures to human bodies caused by heavy metals and POPs from e-waste recycling activities.
Citation:Yuan Jiangang,Zheng Jing,Chen Senlin,Li Jing,Li Han,Xiao Di,Yu Xiaohua,Luo Yong,Yan Xiao,Yang Zhongyi,Luo Xiaojun,Mai Bixian.Advances in the Research on Pollution Investigations and Environmental, Ecological, and Health Risks from E-Waste Recycling Activities in China[J].Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology,2013,8(4):473-486
Nano-QSAR: An Emerging Approach in Nanotoxicology  PDF download
Zhang Yan,Zhu Lin,Wang Lulu
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897.20120327001
Abstract:With the development of studies on safety of nanomaterials, the number of toxicological data reflecting biological effects of nanomaterials keeps increasing. The quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models begin to play their roles in predicting the potential toxicity of nanomaterials. QSAR models for nanomaterials (Nano-QSAR), on the basis of the classic QSAR methods combining with the special physicochemical properties of nanomaterials, offered a new way to rapidly screen nanomaterials and priotitize testing. The studies on establishing the framework of Nano-QSAR modeling were reviewed from three aspects of structure descriptors, toxicological effect data and modeling methods. Selecting and identifying properly modeling methods and structure descriptors were discussed through listing examples and main indices of Nano-QSAR studies. Finally, current challenges and future direction in Nano-QSAR research were pointed out.
Citation:Zhang Yan,Zhu Lin,Wang Lulu.Nano-QSAR: An Emerging Approach in Nanotoxicology[J].Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology,2013,8(4):487-493
Current Progress in the Aquatic Ecotoxicology of β-adrenergic Receptor Blockers  PDF download
Peng Zuhua,Chi Jian,Sun Liwei,Fu Zhengwei
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897.20120608001
Abstract:β-adrenergic receptor blockers (or β- blockers) as a group of pharmaceuticals are mostly used in the treatment of cardiovascular disorders. The pharmacological mechanism of β-blockers was that they bind to the β-adrenergic receptors and do not cause receptors activation or stimulation. Since the β-blockers are widely detected in the aquatic environment and have biological activity, the ecotoxicological effects of these pharmaceuticals on non-target organisms have received increased attention in recent years. In this article, we generalized the current applications and fates of β-blockers in the aquatic environment, and then focused on the toxic effects of these compounds on fish as well as other aquatic organisms. Finally, based on the current experimental data, the prospects for further researches on the β-blockers were discussed.
Citation:Peng Zuhua,Chi Jian,Sun Liwei,Fu Zhengwei.Current Progress in the Aquatic Ecotoxicology of β-adrenergic Receptor Blockers[J].Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology,2013,8(4):494-503
Research Ariticles
Effects of Cadmium and Lead on the Lipid Peroxidation and Levels of Antioxidant Enzymes in Ruditapes philippinarum  PDF download
Yu Qingyun,Wang You,Xu Yan,Zhou Bin,Tang Xuexi
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897.20120607001 
Abstract:To investigate the toxic effects of heavy metal in sub-lethal concentration on marine shellfish, and discuss the possible mechanism, in the laboratory controlled conditions, the effect of different concentrations of heavy metal Cd2 (0.0948, 0.237 and 0.474 mg·L-1) and Pb2 (0.276, 0.690 and 1.380 mg·L-1) on superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) activities and malondialdehyde (MDA) in Ruditapes philippinarum were studied. The results showed that the variation of antioxidant enzymes in digestive gland and gills are almost the same. At the beginning of heavy mental stressed culture, SOD and CAT activity significantly increased both in clam gills and digestive gland in different treatments (P<;0.01). MDA concentrations in treatment groups had no significant difference compared with control group (P>;0.05). The activities of SOD and CAT in high Cd2 (0.474 mg·L-1) and Pb2 (1.380 mg·L-1) concentration treatment group decreased quickly, and had significant difference compared with control group. The decrease of SOD activity in low concentration treatment group were not as much as that in high concentration group. MDA concentration increased first then decreased, which was higher than that in controlgroup. The correlation between SOD activity in the digestive gland and the concentration of Cd2 was higher than that in the gills organization. The correlation between SOD activity in the digestive gland and the concentration of Pb2 was lower than that in the gills organization. The CAT activity in the digestive gland had obvious correlation with the concentration of Cd2 and Pb2 . And there was no correlation between the CAT activity in the gills organization and the concentration of Cd2 and Pb2 . The results showed that the SOD activity in the digestive gland had higher sensitivity to Cd2 than that in the gills organization and the CAT activity in the digestive gland had higher sensitivity to Cd2 and Pb2 than that in the gills organization. Therefore, the SOD and CAT in the digestive gland is sensitive to heavy metal stress in the water environmental and has certain does-effect relationship. The SOD and CAT in the digestive grand of Ruditapes philippinarum could be considered as a potential biomarker to indicate the early-stage heavy mental pollution.
Citation:Yu Qingyun,Wang You,Xu Yan,Zhou Bin,Tang Xuexi.Effects of Cadmium and Lead on the Lipid Peroxidation and Levels of Antioxidant Enzymes in Ruditapes philippinarum [J].Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology,2013,8 (4):504-512
Effects of Chlorpyrifos on Cucumber and Brassinosteroid-Mediated Responses under the Conditions of Chilling Temperature and Low Light  PDF download
Hu Xinhua,Xin Lihua,Sun Liwei,Fu Zhengwei
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897.20120319001 
Abstract:Many pesticides probably have phytotoxicity on exposed plants. However, there is little available information regarding the stress response of crops to pesticides in the greenhouse under suboptimal condition with chilling temperature and low light. Brassinosteroids are one of new type of plant hormone, their mitigating the toxicity of pesticide on crops under the suboptimal condition remain unclear. In this study, the transcriptional responses to chlorpyrifos in the leaves of cucumber (Cucumis sativus), was studied under the condition of the chilling temperature and low light in the artificial climate incubators. Cucumber was treated with chlorpyrifos at two concentrations (0.3 and 1.0 mmol·L-1) and the leaves were sample after 1, 3 and 7 days of exposure. In order to reveal whether the brassinosteroid can alleviate the phytotoxicity, cucumber was pretreated with 24- epibrassinolide 24 h before chlorpyrifos-exposure. The transcriptional level of genes involved in photosynthesis (psaB, psbA and rbcL), protection against oxidative stress (cAPX, DHAR, GR, CAT and GPX), defense (PAL, HPL and ADC) and heat shock (HSP70) were determined using quantitative real-time PCR. The results showed that chlorpyrifos treatment significantly reduced the transcriptional level for most genes under the condition of the chilling temperature and low light. While the transcriptions were induced after 24-epibrassinolide pretreatment, demonstrating that the brassinosteroid could protect crops against the phytotoxicity of pesticides effectively and persistently.
Citation:Hu Xinhua,Xin Lihua,Sun Liwei,Fu Zhengwei.Effects of Chlorpyrifos on Cucumber and Brassinosteroid-Mediated Responses under the Conditions of Chilling Temperature and Low Light[J].Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology,2013,8(4):513-520
Effect of Ration Level and Ammonia Exposure on Food Digestion and Growth of Juvenile Mullet Liza haematocheila  PDF download
Huang Houjian,Jiang Mei,Li Lei,Shen Anglv,Shen Xinqiang
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897.20120417001 
Abstract:Static-renewal method was applied to study the effects of total ammonia (TAN) and ration level on food intake, food conversion efficiency (FCE), growth and pepsin activities of juvenile mullet Liza haematocheila. It was found that the ammonia exposure had a negative effect on the food intake of juvenile mullet, with an inhibition rate of 28.78% under high level ammonia (3.32 mg·L- 1). The FCE of juvenile mullet decreased with the increase of ammonia concentration, while the ration level played a positive effect on the FCE of juvenile mullet. The highest value of FCE was found in group BS5, with a value of 19.83%, and the lowest in HS1 ,with its value -22.19%. The general trend of special growth rate (SGR) of juvenile mullet was similar with that of FCE. The effect of ammonia exposure on the pepsin activity of juvenile mullet was different from each ration level, only the pepsin activities of juvenile mullet from high level feeding group was depressed by the high concentration of ammonia, showing a possible relation with food intake. The pepsin activities of juvenile mullet under control and low- concentration groups were significantly impacted by ration level while under high concentration the influence was not significant. The food intake were the main factor to influence the growth and pepsin activity of mullet, and the high concentration ammonia may indirectly influence the pepsin activity by inhibiting the food intake of juvenile mullet.
Citation:Huang Houjian,Jiang Mei,Li Lei,Shen Anglv,Shen Xinqiang.Effect of Ration Level and Ammonia Exposure on Food Digestion and Growth of Juvenile Mullet Liza haematocheila[J].Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology,2013,8 (4):521- 528
Effect of Microcystins on Growth of Brassica chinensis and Its Accumulation in Vivo  PDF download
Jin Hongmei,Jiang Jun,Chang Zhizhou
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897.20120310001 
Abstract:The collection of cyanobacteria is an effective way to reduce the amount of cyanobacteria and its risk of bloom. Aerobic composting of dewatered cyanobacteria after collection can change waste into resources. However, the residue of microcystins (MC) after aerobic composting should be considered in view of its application safety to plants and human health. To explore the application safety of the composted cyanobacteria, the MC exposure test of green vegetable (Brassica chinensis) cultivated in sand and vegetable soil, and the degradation test of MC in vegetable soil were conducted. Results showed that the height and biomass of Brassica chinensis cultivated in sand significantly declined with the increase of MC concentration, while the content of MC in the above- ground part of the green vegetable increased with the increase of MC concentration at harvest. When being exposed to 0.386 mg·kg-1 of MC, the contents of MC-LR (L indicated leucine) and MC-RR (R indicated arginine) in edible part of the green vegetable were 27.45 μg·kg-1 (fresh mass) and 1.35 μg·kg-1 (fresh mass), respectively. The bio- concentration factor of MC-LR was significantly higher than that of MC-RR. Both of bio-concentration factons of MC-LR and MC-RR decreased with the increase of MC concentration in sand culture test. Because of the degradation of MC in soils, the accumulation of MC detected in the green vegetable cultivated in soils was less than that cultivated in sand. The degradations of MC-LR and MC-RR in vegetable soils were more than 90% after 56 days. The application of composted cyanobacteria with the amount of 2.5 kg·m-2would not influence the growth of Brassica chinensis. The content of MC taken into human bodies via the edible part of the green vegetable was much lower than the standard in drinking water established by WHO. Those results could provide the scientific basis for evaluating the effect of residual MC in composted cynaobacteria on vegetable growth and its biosecurity after farmland application.
Citation:Jin Hongmei,Jiang Jun,Chang Zhizhou.Effect of Microcystins on Growth of Brassica chinensis and Its Accumulation in Vivo[J].Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology,2013,8(4):529- 536
Oxidative Stress Induced by Combined Exposure of Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP) and Ovabumin (OVA) in the Lung and Spleen of Mice  PDF download
Chen Shaohui,You Huihui,Mao Lin,Wen Huaxiao,Ye Ranfeng,Yang Xu
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897.20120912001 
Abstract:To study the oxidative stress in the lung and spleen of mice from dibutyl phthalate (DBP) alone or conbined with ovalbumin (OVA), the BALB/c mice were randomly divided into eight groups: (1) untreated control (saline) group; (2) 0.5 mg·kg-1 DBP exposure group; (3) 5.0 mg·kg-1 DBP exposure group; (4) 50 mg·kg-1 DBP exposure group;(5) OVA exposure group; (6) 0.5 mg·kg-1 DBP and OVA combined exposure group; (7) 5.0 mg·kg-1 DBP and OVA combined exposure group; (8) 50 mg·kg-1 DBP and OVA combined exposure group. The untreated control and DBP exposure groups were given saline and DBP to gavage calculated by body mass everyday. After two weeks, it was measured that the ROS, GSH and MDA contents in the lung tissue and the ROS and GSH contents in the spleen tissue of mice. The results showed that the lung tissue's biomarkers and the spleen's ROS of DBP and OVA combined exposure groups have significant different (P<0.05) compareh with other groups, whereas the content of GSH has no statistically significant difference (P>;0.05). It is suggested that DBP and OVA combined exposure can enhance the oxidative stress in lung tissues, but the oxidative stress in the spleen tissues is not obvious. DBP exhibited certain immune adjuvant effect in combined exposure group.
Citation:Chen Shaohui,You Huihui,Mao Lin,Wen Huaxiao,Ye Ranfeng,Yang Xu.Oxidative Stress Induced by Combined Exposure of Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP) and Ovabumin (OVA) in the Lung and Spleen of Mice[J].Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology,2013,8 (4):537-542
Effects of Sulfamethoxazole (SMZ) on the Content of ChlorophyII (CHL) and Soluble Protein (SP), and the Superoxide Dismutased (SOD) Activity of Wheat, Triticum aestivum  PDF download
Li Yaning,Chen Chun,Li Guodong,Liu Qingyu,Tian Lili
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897.20120814001 
Abstract:To study the ecotoxicology of sulfamethoxazole (SMZ), the laboratory toxicity test was conducted to investigate the toxic effects of SMZ on the superoxide dismutases (SOD) activity and the contents of chlorophyll (CHL) and soluble protein (SP) of wheat (Triticum aestivum). The results showed that after the 7-day exposure, SOD activity in all the SMZ treatments was significantly (P<;0.01) higher than that in the control. And the SOD activity increased with the increase in SMZ concentration. It is indicated that wheat could prevent the reactive oxygen species (ROS) damage by scavenging free radicals. While, the CHL content decreased with the increase in SMZ concentration. The treatments with higher SMZ concentrations significantly (P<; 0.05) decreased the CHL content in Triticum aestivum. The SP content in the treatments of 0.05- 0.50 mg·L-1 of SMZ was significantly (P<;0.01) higher than that in the control. In contrast, the SP content in the treatment of 1.00 mg·L-1 of SMZ decreased significantly (P<;0.01). It is indicated that SMZ influenced the protein synthesis of wheat leaves. Therefore, the changes in the activity of SOD were able to reflect the toxic effects of pollutants on wheat. SOD as good biomarker for evaluating the ecotoxicological effect of SMZ exposure needs further study.
Citation:Li Yaning,Chen Chun,Li Guodong,Liu Qingyu,Tian Lili.Effects of Sulfamethoxazole (SMZ) on the Content of ChlorophyII (CHL) and Soluble Protein (SP), and the Superoxide Dismutased (SOD) Activity of Wheat, Triticum aestivum[J].Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology,2013,8(4):543-548
Effects of Combined Exposure to Lead and Nano-SiO2 on the Oxidative Damage of A549 Cells  PDF download
Lu Yang,Lu Chunfeng,Yuan Xiaoyan,Li Lizhong,Wang Yimei,Zhao Jun,Peng Shuangqing
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897.20120521001 
Abstract:To investigate the possible mechanism and characteristics of the damage effects on A549 cells induced by lead and nano-SiO2 from oxidative stress. A549 cells were alone or combinedly exposed to lead and nano-SiO2. In order to investigate the possible characteristics of combined cytotoxicity of lead and SiO2, the survival rates were detected by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) method. The level of malondialdehyde (MDA) was measured by 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) colorimetric method to assess the extent of oxidative stress. To evaluate the lead and SiO2 jointly treated cells to the influence of the antioxidant defense system, the content of glutathione (GSH) and activities of antioxidant enzymes were detected. The results of ANOVA test showed that all indexes of single exposure group did not obviously change. However, lead and SiO2 combined treatment can induce cell oxidative stress. After combined exposure to lead and SiO2, cell survival rate, glutathione level, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were decreased significantly (P<;0.05); malonaldehyde concentration increased remarkably (P<;0.05). Therefore, it is deduced that combined exposure produce apparent cytotoxic effects. Oxidative damage may be one possible damage mechanism of cells after combined exposure to lead and SiO2.
Citation:Lu Yang,Lu Chunfeng,Yuan Xiaoyan,Li Lizhong,Wang Yimei,Zhao Jun,Peng Shuangqing.Effects of Combined Exposure to Lead and Nano-SiO2 on the Oxidative Damage of A549 Cells[J].Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology,2013,8(4):549 -553
Assessing Ecological Risks of Heavy Metals to Marine Organisms in Chinese Offshore and Fujian’s Main Bays by Species Sensitivity Distributions  PDF download
Du Jianguo,Zhao Jiayi,Chen Bin,Chen Mingru,Zhou Tong,Yu Weiwei,Ma Zhiyuan,Hu Wenjia
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897.20120525001 
Abstract:Species sensitivity distributions (SSD) method was used to assess the ecological risk of eight heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Pb, Zn) to marine organisms. According to the investigation data, the ecological risks of 7 heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn) to marine organisms in Chinese offshore were assessed, and the ecological risks of 6 heavy metals (As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn) to marine organisms in Fujian's main bays were also studied. The results showed that the ecological risks of 7 heavy metals in the Chinese offshore were in the order that Bohai Sea (20.67%)>Yellow Sea (18.39%)>East China Sea (15.94%)>South China Sea (11.26%), and the ecological risk of 6 heavy metals in 13 estuaries and bays in Fujian Province were in the order that Quanzhou Bay (47.44%) >Xiamen Bay (47.16%)> Luoyuan Bay (43.03%)>Shacheng Port (34.65%)>Shenhu Bay (30.34%)>Sansha Bay (28.64%) > Minjiang Estuary (20.55%)>Zhaoan Bay (20.42%)>Xinghua Bay (18.37%)> Meizhou Bay (17.24%).
Citation:Du Jianguo,Zhao Jiayi,Chen Bin,Chen Mingru,Zhou Tong,Yu Weiwei,Ma Zhiyuan,Hu Wenjia.Assessing Ecological Risks of Heavy Metals to Marine Organisms in Chinese Offshore and Fujian’s Main Bays by Species Sensitivity Distributions [J].Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology,2013,8(4):554-560
Assessing Ecological Risks of Heavy Metals to Marine Organisms by Species Sensitivity Distributions  PDF download
Du Jianguo,Zhao Jiayi,Chen Bin,Chen Mingru,Zhou Tong,Yu Weiwei,Ma Zhiyuan,Hu Wenjia
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897.20120525007 
Abstract:Species sensitivity distributions (SSD) method was used to assess the ecological risk of eight heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Pb, Zn) to marine organisms. The acute toxicity data (LC50 or EC50) were collected from ECOTOX database and SSD curves were fitted based on BurrIII function. The acute ecological risks of the heavy metals and the sensitivity of different marine species (vertebrate and invertebrate) to these heavy metals were compared by the hazardous concentrations for 5% of the species (HC5) and the potential affected fractions (PAF). The ecological risk of all heavy metals to crustaceans was higher than to fishes. The HC5 values of the eight heavy metals were in the order: Pb>Mn>Zn>Cr>Cu>Hg>Cd>As. When exposure concentration was lower than 10 μg·L-1, no significant differences in the ecological risks of Cr and Hg was observed. However, As, Cd, Cu and Hg exceeded the threshold of 10% (PAF) at the exposure level of 10 μg·L-1. The ecological risks of different heavy metal had different growth rate. When exposure concentration came up to 1 000 μg·L-1, 82.49 %, 87.31% and 85.90% of marine species would be affected by As, Cu and Hg, respectively. The order of sensitivity of marine species to heavy metals varied with different concentration of heavy metals.
Citation:Du Jianguo,Zhao Jiayi,Chen Bin,Chen Mingru,Zhou Tong,Yu Weiwei,Ma Zhiyuan,Hu Wenjia.Assessing Ecological Risks of Heavy Metals to Marine Organisms by Species Sensitivity Distributions[J].Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology,2013,8(4):561- 570
Spleen Tissue Damage in Mice from Combined Exposure of Benzene and Formaldehyde  PDF download
Wen Huaxiao,Wei Chenxi Chen Shaohui,Mao Lin,Yang Xu
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897.20121018001 
Abstract:To study the damage of mice spleen induced by combined exposure of benzene and formaldehyde, and whether it has certain synergetic effect, 30 BALB/c male mice were chosen and then divided randomly into different groups: benzene group, formaldehyde group, combined exposure group of benzene and formaldehyde, corn oil control group and untreated control group. After treatment, the mice were killed, the contents of ROS and MDA in the mice spleen were measured, the organ coefficient of mice spleen was counted and the sections of mice spleen were made. The results showed that the contents of ROS in the spleen of combined exposure group have very significant increase (P<;0.01) compared with untreated control group, and the organ coefficient of spleen and the content of MDA in the spleen have significant difference (P<;0.05). In addition, in terms of these biomarkers that are the content of MDA in the spleen and the change of spleen immune morphology, we can infer that the damage of mice spleen induced by benzene combing with formaldehyde has certain synergetic effect.
Citation:Wen Huaxiao,Wei Chenxi Chen Shaohui,Mao Lin,Yang Xu.Spleen Tissue Damage in Mice from Combined Exposure of Benzene and Formaldehyde[J].Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology,2013,8(4):571-576
The Ecotoxicity Effects of Cadmium on Microorganism in Udic-Ferrosols and Aquic- Cambosols  PDF download
Cheng Jinjin,Song Jing,Chen Wenchao,Yu Haibo,Huang Yujuan,Wu Longhua,Luo Yongming
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897.20120904001 
Abstract:Soil microbial biomass C (Cmic), enzyme activities and microbial diversity were chosen as soil microbial indicators and the soil available Cd was determined by 0.01 mol L-1 CaCl2 extraction. A laboratory incubation experiment was conducted to study toxic effects of Cd on soil microbial indicators in an udic-ferrosols from Jiangxi and an aquic-cambosols from Tianjin at 25℃ for 28 days. The results showed that CaCl2-extractable Cd in aquic-cambosols was significantly lower than that in udic-ferrosols at different incubation time. And the microbial activity was less inhibited in the aquic-cambosols than that in the udic- ferrosols. The sensitivity of different microbial indicators to Cd was influenced by soil properties and incubation time. Dehydrogenase was more sensitive than urease. The average well color development (AWCD) was more sensitive as a microbial functional diversity index than Shannon index. All of the microbial indicators tested in aquic-cambosols were more sensitive in udic- ferrosols than these in aquic-cambasols, which showed good response to exogenous Cd and therefore can be used in the microbial toxicity test of Cd pollution. There was significant time effect of Cd toxicity to soil microbial indicators. The toxic effect of Cd on Cmic at day 14 was greater than that at day 28, but the toxic effect on dehydrogenase and urease at day 14 was less than that at day 28. The 28-day incubation time was recommended for future microbial toxicity test of Cd pollution. At day 28, the EC10 of Cd for Cmic, dehydrogenase, urease, AWCD and Shannon index were 1.13, 0.26, 0.93, 0.08 and 22.71 mg·kg-1 in udic-ferrosols, respectively. And in aquic-cambosols, the EC10 of Cd for these tested microbial indicators were 1.97, 0.69, 13.12, 0.09 and > 200 mg·kg-1, respectively.
Citation:Cheng Jinjin,Song Jing,Chen Wenchao,Yu Haibo,Huang Yujuan,Wu Longhua,Luo Yongming.The Ecotoxicity Effects of Cadmium on Microorganism in Udic-Ferrosols and Aquic-Cambosols[J].Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology,2013,8(4):577-586
Toxic Effects of Nodularin on Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Embryo  PDF download
Hao Jirong,Li Yuntuan,Jiang Min,Su Huaiyu,Xu Rui
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897.20121110002 
Abstract:Toxic effects of nodularin on zebrafish (Danio rerio ) embryo were studied in this paper. The fertilized eggs of zebrafish were exposed to eight different concentrations of nodularin (0, 50, 100, 200, 400, 800, 1 600 and 3 200 μg·L-1). The influence of nodularin on zebrafish fertilized eggs and embryonic development was observed, and toxic effects were assessed by analyzing hatching, mortality and malformation rates. With the increase of nodularin concentration, the hatching rates of zebrafish embryos were reduced, while the malformation rates and mortality rates were increased. Compared with control groups, zebrafish embryonic development was retarded obviously when the concentration of nodularin was equal or greater than 1 600 μg·L-1. When the concentration of nodularin was equal or greater than 400 μg·L-1 zebrafish embryo incubation rates were significantly reduced from 87% of controls to 7% of exposure groups at 72 hpf. When the concentration of nodularin was equal or greater than 800 μg·L-1, the mortality and malformation rates were increased significantly. The mortality rates of 144 hpf embryos increased from 7% of controls to 73% of exposed groups, and the malformation rates of 144 hpf embryos increased from 0% of controls to 93% of exposure groups. The main malformation characteristics included axial malformation, pericardial edema, tail distorted bending, and etc.. 48 hpf-LC50 and 144 hpf-LC50 of nodularin on the zebrafish was 2 572.76 and 1 056.33μg·L-1 , respectively. Nodularin has certain inhibitory toxicity on the embryonic development of zebrafish and high-concentration nodularin can cause death of zebrafish.
Citation:Hao Jirong,Li Yuntuan,Jiang Min,Su Huaiyu,Xu Rui.Toxic Effects of Nodularin on Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Embryo[J].Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology,2013,8(4):587-594
Oxidation Stress of Sulfamethoxazole (SMZ) on Polychaete Tubifex  PDF download
Li Yaning,Gao Xin,An Xinlong,Liu Wei,Li Guodong,Hou Jie,Chen Junning
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897.20130117002 
Abstract:The method of dynamic and static exposure was used to study the toxic effects of sulfamethoxazole (SMZ) on the antioxidant enzyme defense systems of Tubifex (Monopylephoruslimosus ) in indoor laboratory environments. The changes of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) activity in Tubifex exposed to 0.05-1.00 mg·L-1 SMZ were examined. The changes of the antioxidant enzymes with time were also examined. The results showed that SOD activity was decreased at first and then increased gradually after the 8- day exposure. The highest SOD activity (P<;0.01) was observed in Tubifex after the 8-day exposure to 1.00 mg· L-1 SMZ (1.30 fold of that of control). POD activity increased firstly and then decreased. It reached the highest value after the 8-day exposure to 0.25 mg·L-1 SMZ (1.40 fold of that of control). The CAT activities in exposure groups were higher than that of the control. The CAT activity decreased with an increase in SMZ concentration, and the dose response effect of SMZ and CAT activity was observed. With exposure time, the changes of SOD, POD and CAT were similar. The activity of antioxidant enzymes increased initially and then decreased. The peak values of them were all detected after the 8-d exposure, and the increase rates were 32%, 26% and 82%, respectively. Thus, it is indicated that SMZ could induce oxidative stress in Tubifex , and CAT played a key role in removing oxygen free radicals.
Citation:Li Yaning,Gao Xin,An Xinlong,Liu Wei,Li Guodong,Hou Jie,Chen Junning.Oxidation Stress of Sulfamethoxazole (SMZ) on Polychaete Tubifex[J].Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology,2013,8(4):595-601
Evaluating and Modeling the Toxicity of Binary Mixtures of Heavy Metals and Organophosphate Pesticides to Artemia salina  PDF download
Wu Zongfan,Liu Xingguo,Wang Gaoxue
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897.20130203001 
Abstract:Aquatic ecosystems are often suffered with a wide variety of chemical pollutants including heavy metals and pesticides. This study aimed to experimentally evaluate the joint toxicity of binary mixtures (prepared in predefined ratios of 4∶1, 3∶2, 1∶1; 2∶3 and 1∶4) of heavy metals (Zn and Cd) and organophosphate pesticides (phoxim and dipterex) to saltwater crustacean Artemia salina . Additionally, the predictability of toxicity of the studied mixtures was investigated by concepts of concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA), Isobologram method was used to assess the types of interaction. Toxicity modeling was based on the concentration response curves of the single substances. The obtained results revealed that no synergism was found in any of the tested combinations except that the joint toxicity of Zn-Cd mixtures was enhanced with increasing Zn/Cd ratios. With the Zn to Cd ratios increased, the interaction types changed from antagonism at lower Zn to Cd ratios (1∶4 and 2∶3) to additivity at higher Zn to Cd ratios (1∶1, 3∶2 and 4∶1). Five organophosphate pesticide mixtures showed additive effect, while that of the metal pesticide mixtures were antagonism. In the estimating mixture toxicity, CA accurately described the joint effect of phoxim and dipterex, and IA provided accurate predictions for the mixtures involving metals and organophosphate pesticides. These findings imply that mixture ratios should be taken into account as a factor in mixture toxicity studies. Additionally, CA and IA are reasonable tools for the predictive hazard assessment of mixtures that contain components with similar or completely independent action mechanism against complex organisms such as A. salina.
Citation:Wu Zongfan,Liu Xingguo,Wang Gaoxue.Evaluating and Modeling the Toxicity of Binary Mixtures of Heavy Metals and Organophosphate Pesticides to Artemia salina[J].Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology,2013,8 (4):602-608
Genotoxic Effect of Phenol on the Cells of Onion (Allium cepa ) Roots  PDF download
Gisele Pigatto,Regildo Marcio Gon alves da Silva,Gian Luigi Mariottini,Vanessa Marques de Oliveira,Mauri Sergio Alves Palma,Attilio Converti
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897.20121129006
Highlights:
The relationship between the concentration of phenol, and the incidence of abnormalitiesconfirmed the genotoxicity of phenol pollutant
Abstract:The roots of onion (Allium cepa ) stand out for having cells with large size and small number of chromosomes. These characteristics make them useful in bioassays for the measurement of a variety of cytogenetic and morphological parameters, in which they can be used as toxicity indicators of the induction and formation of micronuclei and chromosomal aberrations. Based on this background, the potential genotoxic effect of phenol concentration on cells of A. cepa roots was investigated either in terms of induced aberrations or micronuclei formation. The results demonstrated that the higher the concentration of phenol, the higher the incidence of abnormalities, thus confirming the genotoxicity of this pollutant.
Citation:Gisele Pigatto,Regildo Marcio Gon alves da Silva,Gian Luigi Mariottini,Vanessa Marques de Oliveira,Mauri Sergio Alves Palma,Attilio Converti.Genotoxic Effect of Phenol on the Cells of Onion (Allium cepa ) Roots [J].Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology,2013,8(4):609-615
Study on the Expression Stability of Reference Genes in Chlamys Farreri  PDF download
Liu Ying,Wang Shuangyao,Gao Qiao,An Lihui,Zhang Peng,Sun Jingxian,Jiang Zhiqiang,Zheng Binghui
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897.20130304001 
Abstract:Appropriate reference gene is very important to precisely quantify the target gene expression. In this present study, five reference genes mRNA expressions, including β-actin, β-TUB, EF-l α, 18S rRNA and GAPDH in Chlamys Farreri gonad , were quantified using real- time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Their expression stability was analyzed online using RefFinder software. The results showed that EF-l α expression was the most stable among these five reference genes in gonad of different development stages and estrogen exposure, suggesting that EF-lα is one of suitable reference gene for quantifying genes expressions in Chlamys Farreri gonad.
Citation:Liu Ying,Wang Shuangyao,Gao Qiao,An Lihui,Zhang Peng,Sun Jingxian,Jiang Zhiqiang,Zheng Binghui.Study on the Expression Stability of Reference Genes in Chlamys Farreri[J].Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology,2013,8(4):616- 622
Developmental Toxicity of Two Size of Nickel Nanoparticles to Caenorhabditis elegan  PDF download
Kong Lu,Tang Meng,Wang Dayong,Pu YuePu
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897.20130321002 
Abstract:The aim of this study is to investigate reproductive and developmental toxicity of the metallic nickel nanoparticles using Caenorhabditis elegan (C. elegans ). First, C. elegans were treated with 20 nm or 90 nm nickel nanoparticles at the doses of 2.5 μg·cm-2and 5.0 μg·cm-2, with 9 g·L-1 NaCl treatment and 3 μm nickel microparticle treatment as control groups. Then, the toxicity was detected by using a battery of bio-tests, including brood size, generation time, body size, life span and days of 50% lethality of C. elegans . Results indicated that, compared to control and microparticle group, abnormities in reproduction and development were induced when C. elegans were exposed to 2.5 μg·cm-2and 5.0 μg·cm-2of 20 nm and 90 nm nickel nanoparticles (P<;0.01), and dose-dependent manners were observed. These results indicated that, significant toxic effects on development and reproduction were observed in C. elegans after exposure to nickel nanoparticles, which can provide a reference for determining the exposure limit standard for nickel nanoparticles.
Citation:Kong Lu,Tang Meng,Wang Dayong,Pu YuePu.Developmental Toxicity of Two Size of Nickel Nanoparticles to Caenorhabditis elegans [J].Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology,2013,8(4):623-628
Influence of Dissolved Organic Carbon Composition on Prediction of Copper Toxicity to Medaka by Biotic Ligand Model  PDF download
Wang Chunyan,Chen Hao,Kuen Benjamin Wu,Zheng Binghui,An Lihui
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897.20110801001
Abstract:To study the influence of the composition of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) on predicting the uncertainty of copper toxicity by the biotic ligand model (BLM), three sets of toxic bioassays were performed to study the influences of humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA) at different concentrations, and various mixtures of both HA and FA on copper acute toxicity to medaka. The results indicated that LC50 of copper to medaka increased with the concentration of HA or FA increasing in same water. As the weight percent of HA added from 10% to 90% when HA and FA in the same water, LC50 of copper to medaka also increased. To natural waters with unknown DOC compositions, when the ratio of HA and FA was assumed to be 1:1, the predicted LC50 by BLM would be optimized.
Citation:Wang Chunyan,Chen Hao,Kuen Benjamin Wu,Zheng Binghui,An Lihui.Influence of Dissolved Organic Carbon Composition on Prediction of Copper Toxicity to Medaka by Biotic Ligand Model [J].Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology,2013,8(4):629-633
 
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