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2013 Volume 8 Issue 4
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Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, August 2013, Volume 8, Number 5 

       

Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology (ISSN: 1673-5897) focuses on fundamental research on the mechanisms of toxicity of the environmental pollutants at the community, species, tissue, cellular, subcellular and molecular levels, including aspects of uptake, metabolism and excretion of toxicants.

We welcome the interdisciplinary studies of environmental chemistry and toxicology describing environmental fate and biological fate of pollutants, novel analytical technologies, techniques, and methods such as biomarkers, biosensors, bioanalytical systems, QSARs and QSPRs.

The applied outcome of complex ecotoxicological research such as

developing the science-based Environmental Quality Criteria (EQC), standard toxicity tests, techniques, and methods for ecotoxicological evaluation of the environment is also within the scope of Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology.

The journal includes not only original research papers but technical notes and review articles, both invited and submitted.

Although most of our papers are written in Chinese, papers written in English are highly welcome.

Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology has been indexed and abstracted in Chemical Abstracts, Biological Abstracts and BIOSIS Previews since 2007.

Reviews
Research Progress on Mechanisms in the Developmental Neurotoxicity of PFOS  PDF download
Liu Xiaohui,Hu Hong,Li Shuangyue,Shao Jing,Liu Wei,Jin Yihe
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897.20130407001
Abstract:Perfluorooctane sulfonates (PFOS), the terminal degradation products of perfluorinated compounds, can bioaccumulate through food chains and is regarded as a potential threat to our living environment. Studies in animals have shown that PFOS passes through placental barrier and blood brain barrier, and induces toxic effects in central nervous system (CNS). In particular, PFOS induces developmental neurotoxicity, and its severity and persistency have been widely recognized. In this current article, we thoroughly reviewed the developmental neurotoxicity by in vivo and in vitro exposure to PFOS and its underlying mechanisms. Furthermore, we discussed present problems in this area and put forward suggestions on future research.
Citation:Liu Xiaohui,Hu Hong,Li Shuangyue,Shao Jing,Liu Wei,Jin Yihe.Research Progress on Mechanisms in the Developmental Neurotoxicity of PFOS[J].Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology,2013,8(5):643-649
Advance in Studies on Human Distribution and Toxic Effects of Perfluoroalkyl and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances  PDF download
Hu Jiayue,Dai Jiayin
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897.20130423002
Abstract: Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) as an emerging kind of persistent organic pollutants have been widely used in commercial and industrial products. PFASs have been detected in environmental samples, wildlife and human body. PFASs have a wide range of toxicity to mammals and aquatic life; therefore, their adverse effects on the ecological environment and human health draw the attention of the public. At present, research on the effects of PFASs on human health was still carried out applying epidemiologic studies and cytotoxicity studies in vitro. Because human has a complex immune and metabolic system, it is necessary for further studying the specific mechanisms of PFASs affecting human health and their safe doses. In this review paper, we summarized hot issues about PFASs such as their distribution in human body, epidemiological studies related to PFASs, their toxicological effect and the mechanism through which they affect the human body, and then we discussed the existing problems and future research directions.
Citation:Hu Jiayue,Dai Jiayin.Advance in Studies on Human Distribution and Toxic Effects of Perfluoroalkyl and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances[J].Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology,2013,8(5):650-657
Toxicological Effects of Typical Chlorophenol Chemicals on Aquatic Organisms  PDF download
Yu Liqin,Zhao Gaofeng,Feng Min,Li Kun,Wen Wu,Zhang Panwei,Zou Xiaowen,Zhou Huaidong
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897.20130105001
Abstract:Chlorophenol chemicals (CPs) are widespread environmental contaminants. They are persistent and bioaccumulative, and can affect wildlife and human health. Among CPs, 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) and pentachlorophenol (PCP) were extensively used and could be detected in most waters. Here we reviewed the environmental behavior of the three typical CPs and their toxicity to aquatic organisms, including acute toxicity, developmental toxicity, oxidative stress, endocrine-disruption, genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, immunotoxicity, cytotoxicity and joint-effect toxicity. Furthermore, molecular techniques, such as toxicomics were used for elucidating the mechanisms of action of CPs, with which some sensitive and effective biomarkers had been found. We also discussed research gaps and perspectives that warrant further investigations.
Citation:Yu Liqin,Zhao Gaofeng,Feng Min,Li Kun,Wen Wu,Zhang Panwei,Zou Xiaowen,Zhou Huaidong.Toxicological Effects of Typical Chlorophenol Chemicals on Aquatic Organisms[J].Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology,2013,8(5):658-670
Research Articles
Decline of Learning and Memory Abilities in Rats Induced by Prenatal and Lactational Exposure to Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS)  PDF download
Wang Yu,Zhang Qian,Liu Wei,Wang Shizhang,Jin Yihe
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897.20130506001
Abstract:The purpose of the present study is to investigate the developmental neurotoxicity of PFOS, and to identify the sensitive period of exposure. Morris Water Maze (MWM) and histopathological examinations were used to evaluate the effects of prenatal and lactational exposure to PFOS on the development of offspring. Learning and memory abilities of pups were assessed, as well as the grip of pups and pathological changes of hippocampus. The results showed that PFOS caused growth retardation, prolongation of eye opening, and reducing in birth weight of pups compared with the control group. Body weights of pups with prenatal exposure were lower than that with lactational exposure under the same concentrations of PFOS exposure. No significant change was observed in grip after PFOS exposure. MWM results showed that the escape latency of TT15 (exposed to 15 mg·L-1 PFOS in both prenatal and lactational period) and TC15 (exposed to 15 mg·L-1 PFOS in prenatal period) exposure groups was significantly longer than the control group. In addition, escape latency of TC15 exposure group was significantly longer than CT15 (exposed to 15 mg·L-1 PFOS in lactational period) exposure group. Probe trial experiment suggested that the time spent in the target quadrant of pups from TT15 group was significantly shorter than those from control group, and there was no significant change in other groups. Histopathology observation indicated reduced cells and apoptosis in hippocampus. PFOS caused the developmental delay of offspring, as well as decline of learning and memory abilities, and prenatal period might be the critical stage to PFOS exposure.
Citation:Wang Yu,Zhang Qian,Liu Wei,Wang Shizhang,Jin Yihe.Decline of Learning and Memory Abilities in Rats Induced by Prenatal and Lactational Exposure to Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS)[J].Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology,2013,8(5):671-677 
Effect of Perinatal PFOS Exposure on Glucose Homeostasis of Adult Rats Offspring  PDF download
Xiao Jing,Lian Yulong,Ma Ying,Zhao Jianya
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897.20130423001
Abstract:Effect of perinatal exposure to PFOS on glucose metabolism of adult rat offsprings was investigated. The pregnant rats were exposed to PFOS with doses of 0 mg·kg-1 PFOS (control), 4 mg·kg-1 PFOS (low) or 8 mg·kg-1 PFOS (high) through diet from gestation day 0 (GD 0) to postnatal day 21 (PND21). Serum PFOS concentrations were determined on PND1, PND21 and PND42 by HPLC-LC/MS. The rats' body weight was monitored during the experiments. Fasting blood glucose and fasting serum insulin level were measured at 8 and 18 weeks after weaning. Homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) was also calculated. Moreover, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed on 18 weeks in male offspring after weaning and the area under curve was calculated. Besides, expression of glucose metabolism-related genes was measured using real-time PCR. The present study showed that serum PFOS concentration increased after exposure and the concentration was highest on PND 21, with (7.77±1.45) μg·mL-1 at 4 mg·kg-1 dose and (5.09±0.57) μg·mL-1 at 8 mg·kg-1 dose. Additionally, body weights of rat pups from PFOS exposure groups were significantly lower than control group. Though the fasting blood glucose levels were affected by PFOS only in male offspring, serum insulin levels were significantly elevated in all exposure groups. The degree of insulin resistance was also elevated and PFOS exposure could impair the glucose tolerance of male rat pups at 18 week. Furthermore, results from RT-PCR revealed that PFOS up-regulated the expression level of PGC-1 and PEPCK, while down-regulated the expression level of hypoglycemic gene G6P. In conclusion, developmental exposure to PFOS disturbed the glucose homeostasis of rat pups in the adulthood, led to insulin resistance and increased the risk of diabetes and metabolic disorder.
Citation:Xiao Jing,Lian Yulong,Ma Ying,Zhao Jianya.Effect of Perinatal PFOS Exposure on Glucose Homeostasis of Adult Rats Offspring[J].Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology,2013,8(5):678-686
Acute Toxicity of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate on Earthworms (Eisenia fetida)  PDF download
Zheng Xiaoqi,Shi Yajuan,Lv Yonglong,Xu Xiangbo
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897.20121128001
Abstract:Artificial soil method was applied to study the effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) on earthworms (Eisenia fetida) during 14 d exposure. Survival, activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT) and DNA damages of earthworms were detected. The results showed that 14 d-LC50 was 478.0 mg·kg-1, indicating low toxicity;PFOS significantly inhibited the growth of earthworms during acute exposure, and the growth inhibition rates increased with the increase of PFOS concentration, showing dose-response relationship (r=0.951,P<0.01). Neither GST nor CAT activity showed dose-response relationship with PFOS concentration; DNA damages of earthworm coelomocytes were detected after 14 d exposure to PFOS. Tail length (TL), tail DNA content (TD) and tail moment (TM) values not only exhibited a significant difference (P<0.05) compared with the control, but also had a strong dose-response relationship (P<0.01). In conclusion, PFOS had a low toxicity effect on survival of earthworms; however, it could inhibit the growth, and damage the coelomocytes DNA of earthworms.
Citation:Zheng Xiaoqi,Shi Yajuan,Lv Yonglong,Xu Xiangbo.Acute Toxicity of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate on Earthworms (Eisenia fetida)[J].Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology,2013,8(5):687-694
Influence of Short-Term Exposure of PFOS on Seedling Growth of Different Plants  PDF download
Lv Zhen'e,Su Yuhong,Qiao Min
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897.20130219001
Abstract:PFOS is a new type of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and most of its ecotoxiciy tests were focused on the aquatic system. The research on phytotoxicity of PFOS is still limited. The aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of short-term exposure of PFOS on seedling growth of several different plants including wheat, barley, Chinese cabbage, clover and mung bean. The root elongation, shoot elongation and the above ground biomass were selected as different evaluation indices. The dose-response relationship between PFOS concentration and crop growth was established and the correlation was analyzed between different indices, aiming to screen out the plant which was most sensitive to PFOS contamination. Results showed that the lowest EC50 for different endpoints for the selected crops were: wheat 352 mg·kg-1 (root elongation), barley 434 mg·kg-1 (root elongation), clover 794 mg·kg-1 (fresh weight of the above ground biomass), cabbage 829 mg·kg-1 (fresh weight of the above ground biomass), mung bean >
1 000 mg·kg-1. Thus the decreasing order of phytotoxicity of PFOS for the selected crops were: wheat > barley > clover >cabbage > mung bean. Fibrous root crops (wheat and barley) were more sensitive than straight root crops (clover, cabbage and mung bean). The descending order of sensitivity for four evaluation indices was root elongation > fresh weight of the above ground biomass > shoot elongation > dry weight of the above ground biomass. The root elongation of wheat was the most sensitive indicator. The evaluation indices were positively related based on correlation analysis, indicating PFOS has identical influence on the different evaluation indices for each kind of plant.

Citation:Lv Zhen'e,Su Yuhong,Qiao Min.Influence of Short-Term Exposure of PFOS on Seedling Growth of Different Plants[J].Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology,2013,8(5):695-701
Hormonal Activity Assessment of PFOS and Its Substitutes  PDF download
Yang Rong,Li Na,Ma Mei,Wang Zijian
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897.20130514001
Abstract:To study the endocrine disrupting effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and its substitutes, the two-hybrid recombinant yeast cells were exposed to different concentration levels of test substances to detect their hormonal activity with or without the metabolic activation technology. Results of the bioassay indicated that PFOS could act as the androgen receptor, thyroid receptor and retinoic X receptor antagonist, and additionally showed estrogen receptor antagonistic activity after the in vitro metabolic activation, with the half effective concentrations (EC50) ranging from 3.0×10-4 to 4.8×10-3 g·L-1. Simultaneously, four substitutes did not show significant effect, suggesting they did not disrupt the normal function of natural hormones by binding to the nuclear receptors. Thus, compared with PFOS, the application of substitutes may be deemed a lower environmental risk in the aspect of hormonal activity.
Citation:Yang Rong,Li Na,Ma Mei,Wang Zijian.Hormonal Activity Assessment of PFOS and Its Substitutes[J].Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology,2013,8(5):702-707
Environmental Behaviors of Potassium Perfluorobutane Sulfonate as Potential Alternative of PFOS  PDF download
Liu Min,Yin Haowen,Chen Xiaoqian,Li Kang,Yang Jing,Jia Lijuan
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897.20120710002
Abstract:After perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was listed in POPs, several countries and international organizations published regulation to manage and restrict the production and application of PFOS, and they made efforts to develop the alternatives. Selecting potassium perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBSK) as the potential alternative, its physic-chemical properties (melting point, boiling point, vapor pressure and water solubility) and environmental fate (hydrolysis, photolysis, biodegradation and bioconcentration) are investigated by tests according to OECD guidelines and calculation by US EPA EPI Suite 4.0, and compared systemically with those of PFOS and its salts. The results showed that PFBSK and potassium perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOSK) had some similarities such as high melting and boiling point, low vapor pressure and high persistence, while the solubility and bioconcentration between PFBSK and PFOSK were much different. The solubility of PFBSK is 49.3 g·L-1 (20 ℃), which showed it is highly water soluble. However, the solubility of PFOSK is only 519 mg·L-1. PFBSK showed low accumulation with BCF of 3.16. BCF of PFOSK is 6 531, and it also showed biomagnification in food chain.
Citation:Liu Min,Yin Haowen,Chen Xiaoqian,Li Kang,Yang Jing,Jia Lijuan.Environmental Behaviors of Potassium Perfluorobutane Sulfonate as Potential Alternative of PFOS[J].Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology,2013,8(5):708-713
Toxicities of Potassium Perfluorobutane Sulfonate as Potential Alternative of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate to Multi-Species of Different Trophic Levels PDF download
Liu Min,Yin Haowen,Chen Xiaoqian,Li Kang,Yang Jing,Zhang Jingji,Jia Lijuan
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897.20120710003
Abstract:Potassium perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBSK) as potential alternative of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), has high water solubility and is found mainly in waters. Therefore, it is important to investigate the aquatic toxicity of PFBSK. The aquatic acute toxicity tests were performed on the green algae (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata), the invertebrates (Daphnia magna) and Chinese indigenous fish (Gobiocypris rarus) according to OECD guidelines 201, 202 and 203. Daphnia magna reproduction test was performed according to OECD 211. The results showed that PFBSK exhibited no obvious acute and chronic toxicity according to GHS standards since all of endpoints of acute toxicity test are higher than 100 mg·L-1 and the NOEC and LOEC of 21-day reproduction test for Daphnia magna are 571 mg·L-1 and 981 mg·L-1. In comparison with PFBSK, fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) was the most susceptible freshwater fish species to PFOSK in acute test with 96 h-LC50 of 4.7 mg·L-1. NOEC of PFOSK for D. magna 21-day reproduction test was 12 mg·L-1. According to GHS standards, PFOS is moderate toxic to aquatic life. In conclusion, aquatic toxicity of PFBS was much lower than PFOS.
Citation:Liu Min,Yin Haowen,Chen Xiaoqian,Li Kang,Yang Jing,Zhang Jingji,Jia Lijuan.Toxicities of Potassium Perfluorobutane Sulfonate as Potential Alternative of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate to Multi-Species of Different Trophic Levels[J].Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology,2013,8(5):714-721
HBCD Disturbs Energy Metabolism and Inhibits Cartilage, Muscle and Fin Development of Zebrafish at Early Life Stages  PDF download
Deng Jun,Yang Lihua,Zhou Bingsheng
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897.20130513001
Abstract:Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is a widely used flame retardant and ubiquitously distributed in the environment. Characterized as persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic chemicals, HBCD could enrich in fish tissues and cause adverse effects on their early development. Zebrafish embryos (0.5 hpf) were exposed to different HBCD concentrations (0.1, 0.5 and 1 mg·L-1) until 120 hpf. The changes in the development of cartilage, muscle and fin were assessed, and the underlying molecular mechanism was studied. Oil Red O staining test revealed an inhibition of lipid absorption in zebrafish larvae yolk sac; microscopic observations including impaired skull cartilage development, irregular myofiber structure abnormality in fins were found in HBCD exposed larvae. Moreover, the activities of cytochrome c oxidase (COX), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotideoxidoreductases (NOX) and ATP synthetase were inhibited, resulting in decreased ATP contents; meanwhile, the transcripts of bmp, sox9a, wnt and myod were all down-regulated (P<0.05). In conclusion, exposure to HBCD at early life stages could result in insufficient nutrient yield and transportation, thus disturb the energy metabolism and regulations of signaling pathways such as bmp-sox9a and wnt-myod, and finally affect the normal development of tissues such as cartilage, muscle and fins.
Citation:Deng Jun,Yang Lihua,Zhou Bingsheng.HBCD Disturbs Energy Metabolism and Inhibits Cartilage, Muscle and Fin Development of Zebrafish at Early Life Stages[J].Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology,2013,8(5):722-730
Acute Toxicity and Oxidative Stress Effects of BDE-47 on Zebrafish Embryos and Larvae  PDF download
Ji Guixiang,Shi Lili,Liu Jining,Wu Shengmin
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897.20120409001
Abstract:The purpose of this study is to explore the acute toxicity and oxidative stress of BDE-47 to zebrafish embryos and larvae. The 96 h acute toxicity test was conducted using 3 hours post-fertilization zebrafish, and the 96 h-LC50 of BDE-47 for adolescent zebrafish was calculated using Karber's method. The 4 days post-fertilization zebrafish was exposed to 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg·L-1 of BDE-47 for 96 hours in semi-static test system to investigate the effect of BDE-47 on SOD and CAT activities, and MDA contents. Acridine orange (AO) staining was performed to observe the apoptosis caused by BDE-47. The results showed that the 96 h-LC50 of BDE-47 for zebrafish was 3.77 mg·L-1, with the 95% confidence interval of 1.93-10.27 mg·L-1. The SOD activity and MDA content of zebrafish in 2.0 mg·L-1 group were significantly higher compared with the control group. The CAT activity showed obvious dose-response relationship with BDE-47 concentration. After exposure to 0.5 mg·L-1 of BDE-47 for 96 hours, significant apoptosis was observed in the larvae, which mainly accumulated in the neural tube and brain. It is indicated that BDE-47 exposure could induce oxidative stress and further cause cell apoptosis in larvae. The tissue oxidative damage might be one of the primary mechanisms of neurotoxicity of BDE-47.
Citation:Ji Guixiang,Shi Lili,Liu Jining,Wu Shengmin.Acute Toxicity and Oxidative Stress Effects of BDE-47 on Zebrafish Embryos and Larvae[J].Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology,2013,8(5):731-736
Toxic Effects of BDE-47 on Two Marine Copepods  PDF download
Xu Fengfeng,Zhu Liyan,Gong Wenjing,Wang Junjian,Lu Mengxue
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897.20130322001
Abstract:To study the toxic effects of BDE-47 on the marine copepods, Eurytemora pacifica and Tigriopus japonicas were exposed to BDE-47 for 96 h-LC50 measurement. On this basis, experiments aimed to determine the effect of BDE-47 on the ingestion, metabolism and antioxidant defense system of E. pacifica and T. japonicas were performed respectively with five different concentrations and a control group. Results showed that the 96 h-LC50 of BDE-47 were 57 μg·L-1 for E. pacifica and 851 μg·L-1 for T. japonicas. It is indicated that BDE-47 has higher toxicity to E. pacifica than T. japonicas. The ingestion and metabolism were significantly enhanced or inhibited under different concentrations of BDE-47. The ingestion and ammonia excretion rate of E. pacifica were promoted in the moderate concentration (1.425 μg·L-1), and the oxygen consumption rate was inhibited in the high concentration (5.70 and 11.40 μg·L-1). The ingestion of T. japonicas was inhibited in the high concentration (170.20 μg·L-1), while the oxygen consumption rate was promoted in the moderate concentration (21.28 μg·L-1). The ammonia excretion rate of T. japonicas was enhanced obviously. The results of 96 h exposure experiments showed that in E. pacifica, the activities of SOD were restrained throughout 96 h. The activities of GST increased at first and then decreased with the extension of exposure time. The contents of GSH and the activities of GPx were induced initially and inhibited afterwards at low level (0.7125 and 1.425 μg·L-1), and at high level (5.70 and 11.40 μg·L-1) it was on the contrary. The activities of SOD and the contents of GSH of T. japonicas were both very sensitive to BDE-47. SOD activities were inhibited first, then induced and inhibited at last with the increase of BDE-47 concentration. The activities of GST and the contents of GSH had no significant differences in comparison to control at low level (10.64 and 21.28 μg·L-1), while at high level (85.10 and 170.20 μg·L-1) GST activities were increased at first and then decreased with the extension of time, and GSH contents were inhibited first, then induced and inhibited at last. The activities of GPx were inhibited first and then induced. A certain time and dose-response was observed for BDE-47 toxicity to copepods, and had significant differences between species.
Citation:Xu Fengfeng,Zhu Liyan,Gong Wenjing,Wang Junjian,Lu Mengxue.Toxic Effects of BDE-47 on Two Marine Copepods[J].Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology,2013,8(5):737-747
Bioaccumulation and Biotransformation of Sediment-Associated DE-83 in Cipangopaludina cahayensis, Gastropoda  PDF download
Tian Shengyan,Zhu Lingyan,Liang Xianwei,Li Juntuan,Cao Xiaobo
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897.20121011001
Abstract:Cipangopaludina cahayensis was exposed to a commercial product of BDEs (DE-83) in sediments for 60 days to investigate the bioaccumulation and biotransformation of nona- and deca-BDEs. The major congeners in DE-83 were 92% of BDE-209, 6% of BDE-206, 1.5% of BDE-207 and 0.5% of BDE-208. The results showed that all the major congeners were bioaccumulated in C. cahayensis. The uptake coefficients (ks) of nona- and deca-BDE congeners in C. cahayensis ranged from 0.029 to 0.042 d-1, and the value of BDE-207 was slightly higher than those of BDE-206 and BDE-209. Nona- and deca-BDE congeners displayed low bioavailability with biota sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) of 0.02 for BDE-206 and BDE-207 and 0.05 for BDE-209, respectively. Lower brominated BDEs were detected in the tissue of C. cahayensis and their concentrations increased with the exposure duration, which could result from the biotransformation of high brominated BDEs.
Citation:Tian Shengyan,Zhu Lingyan,Liang Xianwei,Li Juntuan,Cao Xiaobo.Bioaccumulation and Biotransformation of Sediment-Associated DE-83 in Cipangopaludina cahayensis, Gastropoda[J].Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology,2013,8(5):748-756
Toxic Effect of Tri(2,3-Dichloroprophyl) Phosphate Flame Retardant on Rare Minnow (Gobiocypris rarus)   PDF download
Tana,Fang Yanjun,Lin Bencheng, Zhang Wei,Tian Lei,Xi Zhuge
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897.20130116002
Abstract:Toxicological effects of tri(2,3-dichloroprophyl) phosphate (TDCPP) on rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) were investigated using the semi-static bioassay, including 96 h acute toxicity and 28 d chronic toxicity. We also explored some special gene expression levels such as NF-M, GAP-43, Tubulin α/β, which resulted in neurotoxicity of TDCPP. Results showed that the 96 h-LC50 value of TDCPP to rare minnow was 2.99 (2.20~3.38) mg·L-1. According to the criteria for evaluating and grading toxicity of chemicals to fishes, the toxicity of TDCPP should be the hypertoxicity level. The activities of SOD and GSH-Px in both liver and brain tissues of rare minnow were inhibited in comparison with the control, after exposure to 0.9, 1.5, 2.1 and 2.7 mg·L-1 TDCPP for 28 d. The inhibition strengthened as TDCPP concentration increased. Furthermore, the expressions of specific genes in brain tissue involved in neurotrophic factor, such as NF-M, GAP-43 and microtubulin α/β were significantly down-regulated compared with the control. It is indicated that TDCPP may induce the neurotoxic effect on rare minnow.
Citation:Tana,Fang Yanjun,Lin Bencheng, Zhang Wei,Tian Lei,Xi Zhuge .Toxic Effect of Tri(2,3-Dichloroprophyl) Phosphate Flame Retardant on Rare Minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) [J].Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology,2013,8(5):757-762
Concentration-Dependent Effect of PCP on Swimming Behavior of Zebrafish   PDF download
Ni Fang,Zhou Siyun,Zhang Ying,Quan Xie
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897.20130507001
Abstract:Chemical pollution incidents happened frequently in recent years, so it is becoming necessary to establish a real-time monitoring system. The behavioral responses of zebrafish exposed to PCP were monitored by on-line biological monitoring system (here named 3D-biomonitor). The 3D behavior data of zebrafish was recorded and analyzed, where movement trace, swimming speed (median), surface behavior frequency and entropy were highlighted. In comparison with the control test, it can be seen that the surface behavior frequency of zebrafish tended to increase, while the swimming speed and entropy value tended to decrease, after exposed to low concentrations (0.25 mg·L-1, 0.5 mg·L-1) of PCP, although the decrement was not obvious. After exposed to the moderate concentrations (1.0 mg·L-1, 2.0 mg·L-1) of PCP, all of the three indicators (the swimming speed, surface behavior frequency and entropy value) decreased after dramatically increasing for about 10 min. When zebrafish was exposed to the highest test concentration of PCP (4.0 mg·L-1), all of the indicators decreased with the exposure time increasing. In general, the behavioral responses of zebrafish were dependent on PCP exposure concentrations, and the toxic effect of PCP on the swimming behavior of zebrafish can be monitored by 3D-biomonitor. It can be expected that fish ethology would be a promising method for monitoring the water pollution accident.
Citation:Ni Fang,Zhou Siyun,Zhang Ying,Quan Xie .Concentration-Dependent Effect of PCP on Swimming Behavior of Zebrafish [J].Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology,2013,8(5):763-771
Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Model for Bioconcentration Factors of Halogenated Organic Compounds   PDF download
Zheng Yuting,Qiao Xianliang,Yang Xianhai,Chen Guangchao,Li Xuehua
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897.20130515001
Abstract: According to the principles of development and validation of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) proposed by Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), a QSAR model for the bioconcentration factors of halogenated organic compounds in fish was developed by employing the multiple linear regressions (MLR) based on 9 molecular descriptors. The adjusted coefficient of determination (R2adj), the leave-one-out cross validated coefficient (Q2LOO) and external explained variance (Q2EXT) are 0.877, 0.873 and 0.757, respectively, which indicate that the model has high goodness-of-fit and robustness. The model application domain was characterized by the Euclidean distance, and mechanism was subsequently interpreted. The obtained model is able to predict the BCF of halogenated compounds within the application domain.
Citation:Zheng Yuting,Qiao Xianliang,Yang Xianhai,Chen Guangchao,Li Xuehua .Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Model for Bioconcentration Factors of Halogenated Organic Compounds [J].Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology,2013,8(5):772-777
Mechanisms of Dysfunction on Learning and Memory Capacity Induced by VOCs, Bacteria and Particulate Matter  PDF download
Li Chonglei,Wang Fan,Liu Wei,Chen Jianji,Guo Li,Jin Yihe
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897.20130510002
Abstract:Indoor air pollution is characterized by the coexistence of a variety of sources, while volatile organic compounds, bacteria and particulate matters are representatives of indoor air pollutants. Neurobehavioral toxicity is one of the most sensitive effects that indoor air pollution will induce. In order to investigate the effects and mechanisms of VOCs, bacteria and particulate matter on learning and memory capacity of mice, 70 Kunming male mice were randomly divided into one control group (G1) and six exposure groups (G2-G7). Morris water maze system and the grip strength meter were used to test learning and memory latency and the grip strength of mice. The levels of ROS, MDA, Glu, Ach and activities of cholinergic system enzymes (ChAT, TChE) in brain were analyzed. The expression of BDNF, GDNF and NGF were also evaluated. The results showed that on the sixth day, there were significant differences on grip strength, escape latency, time spent in the target quadrant between the control and G5, G6, G7 group, which were accompanied with the significant increase of the levels of ROS, MDA and Glu, as well as the significant decrease of Ach level, ChAT and TChE activities and neurotrophin expression (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Our findings indicated that VOCs, particulate matter and bacteria can lead to dysfunction on learning and memory capacity of mice. It is speculated that the mechanism might involve the neural excitatory or inhibitory toxicity induced by oxidative damage, and the abnormal production and release of neurotransmitter caused by inhibited- or interrupted- retrograde axonal transport of neurotrophin, which led to the dysfunction of learning and memory capacity subsequently.
Citation:Li Chonglei,Wang Fan,Liu Wei,Chen Jianji,Guo Li,Jin Yihe.Mechanisms of Dysfunction on Learning and Memory Capacity Induced by VOCs, Bacteria and Particulate Matter[J].Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology,2013,8(5):778-784

 

Comparison of the Sensitivity of Rana nigromaculata with Xenopus laevis in Tadpole Acute Toxicity Test  PDF download
Su Hongqiao,Zhang Yinfeng,Qin Zhanfen,Li Jianzhong
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897.20130320001
Abstract:Amphibian tadpole acute toxicity test is a method for evaluating acute toxicity of chemicals. Using dursban, acetochlor, potassium dichromate and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) as test chemicals, we compared the sensitivity of native species Rana nigromaculata with general species Xenopus laevis in tadpole acute toxicity test. In control groups, we found that the mortality of R. nigromaculata tadpoles (0.9%) was obviously lower than that of X. laevis tadpoles (5.8%). 96 h-LC50 of potassium dichromate and PFOS for R. nigromaculata tadpoles were 34.0 mg·L-1 and 81.0 mg·L-1, while 96 h-LC50 of potassium dichromate and PFOS for X. laevis tadpoles were 51.6 mg·L-1 and 91.2 mg·L-1, respectively. The data showed that R. nigromaculata was more sensitive than X. laevis to potassium dichromate and PFOS. 96 h-LC50 of dursban and acetochlor for R. nigromaculata tadpoles were 0.41 mg·L-1and 4.1 mg·L-1, while the 96 h-LC50 for X. laevis tadpoles were 0.12 mg·L-1 and 3.1 mg·L-1, respectively. The data showed that R. nigromaculata was slightly less sensitive than X. laevis to dursban and acetochlor. Considering the difference in the sensitivity between R. nigromaculata and X. laevis tadpoles as well as the low mortality and higher availability of R. nigromaculata, it is concluded that R. nigromaculata is more suitable than X. laevis as test species in tadpole acute toxicity test for Chinese environmental management of chemicals.
Citation:Su Hongqiao,Zhang Yinfeng,Qin Zhanfen,Li Jianzhong.Comparison of the Sensitivity of Rana nigromaculata with Xenopus laevis in Tadpole Acute Toxicity Test[J].Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology,2013,8(5):785-790
The Hepatotoxicity and Mechanism of Bromide 1-Tetradecyl-3-Methyl Imidazole to Mice  PDF download
Xu Hongmei,Xuan Yihong,Jiang Yun,Ren Na,Ding Yunsheng,Lv Dan,Zhang Yifan,Li Xiaoxue,Zhou Jian,Xu Kaibing
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897.20130508001
Abstract: In order to study the hepatotoxicity of ionic liquid bromide 1-tetradecyl-3-methyl imidazole salt ([C14mim]Br) to mice and its mechanism, three different dosage groups (1/16 LD50, 1/8 LD50 and 1/4 LD50) and one blank control group were set up. After KM mice were treated with [C14mim]Br solution by intragastric administration for 14 days, the effects of [C14mim]Br on serum biochemical index, histomorphology, antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation in mice liver were observed. Compared with the control group, the levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, direct bilirubin and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase in serum of treated mice were all increased obviously. At meanwhile, damaged liver tissue, higher hepatosomatic index and lower protein content were also observed in treated mice. At the 1/4 LD50 group, superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione peroxidase content decreased significantly, while the content of malondialdehyde increased obviously. It is indicated that [C14mim]Br could cause damage to liver function of mouse and destroy its antioxidant system, leading to oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation.
Citation:Xu Hongmei,Xuan Yihong,Jiang Yun,Ren Na,Ding Yunsheng,Lv Dan,Zhang Yifan,Li Xiaoxue,Zhou Jian,Xu Kaibing.The Hepatotoxicity and Mechanism of Bromide 1-Tetradecyl-3-Methyl Imidazole to Mice[J].Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology,2013,8(5):791-798
Effect of 1-Octyl-3-Methylimidazolium Chloride on the Growth, Cell Proliferation and Membrane Permeability in Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae  PDF download
Jing Changqin,Liu Zhenhua,Li Wenjin,Zhang Zun,Wang Linlin
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897.20121219003
Abstract:To study the effect of 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride on the growth, cell proliferation and membrane permeability in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, yeast cells were exposed to [C8mim][Cl] with different concentrations. The proliferation of yeast cells was examined and the number and size of yeast colonies were evaluated in this study. Membrane permeability and its damage by [C8mim][Cl] were also detected by measuring OD280 and OD260 of extracellular fluid. The results showed that the treatment of yeast cells with 0.1 mmol·L-1 [C8mim][Cl] extended the time to reach the logarithmic phase time, and significantly inhibited cell proliferation between 6 h and 9 h. The yeast cell proliferation was inhibited and was unable to reach the logarithmic growth phase when treated with 1 mmol·L-1[C8mim][Cl]. With increasing the concentration of [C8mim][Cl], the number of small colonies increased. When the concentration of [C8mim][Cl] reached 10 mmol·L-1, no colony was formed in the plate medium. The values of OD280 and OD260 of extracellular fluid of yeast cells increased significantly after treated with [C8mim][Cl]. The results suggested that [C8mim][Cl] inhibited the growth and proliferation of yeast cells partially through increasing cell membrane permeability.
Citation:Jing Changqin,Liu Zhenhua,Li Wenjin,Zhang Zun,Wang Linlin.Effect of 1-Octyl-3-Methylimidazolium Chloride on the Growth, Cell Proliferation and Membrane Permeability in Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae[J].Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology,2013,8(5):799-804
 
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