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Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, February 2015, Volume 10, Number 1 

       

Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology (ISSN: 1673-5897) focuses on fundamental research on the mechanisms of toxicity of the environmental pollutants at the community, species, tissue, cellular, subcellular and molecular levels, including aspects of uptake, metabolism and excretion of toxicants.

We welcome the interdisciplinary studies of environmental chemistry and toxicology describing environmental fate and biological fate of pollutants, novel analytical technologies, techniques, and methods such as biomarkers, biosensors, bioanalytical systems, QSARs and QSPRs.

The applied outcome of complex ecotoxicological research such as

developing the science-based Environmental Quality Criteria (EQC), standard toxicity tests, techniques, and methods for ecotoxicological evaluation of the environment is also within the scope of Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology.

The journal includes not only original research papers but technical notes and review articles, both invited and submitted.

Although most of our papers are written in Chinese, papers written in English are highly welcome.

Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology has been indexed and abstracted in Chemical Abstracts, Biological Abstracts and BIOSIS Previews since 2007.

Reviews
Research Progress and Main Scientific Problems of Theory and Methodology of China’s Environmental Quality Criteria  PDF download
Feng Chenglian, Zhao Xiaoli, Hou Hong, Huang Wei, Song Jing, Li Huixian, Meng Wei, Wu Fengchang
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20141114001
Abstract: Environmental quality criteria are the threshold limits for pollutants or other hazard factors to certain receptors in the ambient environment, which are scientific basis to formulate and revise environmental quality standards. The theory and methodology of environmental quality criteria has been the international frontier in the field of environmental science and environmental protection science. It is also the great science and technology demand of national environmental management. Based on the research results of international and China's environmental quality criteria, the general situation, theory, methodology and important progress of environmental quality criteria were systematically expounded in this paper. At the same time, combining with the characteristics of disciplines and science and technology demand of environmental quality criteria, a series of key scientific problems that are closely related to the theory and methodology of environmental quality criteria were comprehensively analyzed.
Citation: Feng Chenglian, Zhao Xiaoli, Hou Hong, Huang Wei, Song Jing, Li Huixian, Meng Wei, Wu Fengchang Research Progress and Main Scientific Problems of Theory and Methodology of China’s Environmental Quality Criteria [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 9(1): 2-17
Investigation on Important Directions of China Environmental Quality Criteria   PDF download
Zhao Xiaoli, Zhao Tianhui, Li Huixian, Huo Shouliang, Xu Jian, Feng Chenglian, Xu Yiping, Duan Xiaoli, Wang Tieyu, Hou Hong, Meng Wei, Wu Fengchang
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20141203002
Abstract: Environmental quality criteria (EQC) are the scientific basis to formulate environmental quality standards, which are the foundation of the national environmental quality assessment and risk management. It involves in the frontier discipline field of environmental chemistry, toxicology, ecology, epidemiology, biology and risk assessment. National EQC are a long-term systematic project. In the present study, key research directions of the future EQC research of China were comprehensively analyzed and pointed out based on the subject characteristics and international frontiers of EQC research combined with the research status of the national science and technology demand and the related areas. The future research direction of Chinese EQC include: 1) theory and methodology of EQC; 2) basic database of EQC; 3) screening of target pollutants and priority ordering techniques; 4) water nutrient criteria; 5) bioassay and toxicity evaluation technology; 6) human exposure assessment theory and related technologies; 7) proofreading of EQC; 8) mechanism for transformation of EQC into environmental standards and the environmental management supporting technology. In the present investigation, the research progresses, scientific questions and future key research contents of 8 research direction closely related to EQC were expounded from the point of the development of EQC. The article pointed out that these important research directions were the fundament of EQC, and the long-term strategic development of the future EQC is bound to be built on the basis of considerable development of various important research directions. EQC will lead to the common flourish development of these directions, injecting vigor into the development of environmental geochemistry, toxicology, ecology and other fields.
Citation: Zhao Xiaoli, Zhao Tianhui, Li Huixian, Huo Shouliang, Xu Jian, Feng Chenglian, Xu Yiping, Duan Xiaoli, Wang Tieyu, Hou Hong, Meng Wei, Wu Fengchang Investigation on Important Directions of China Environmental Quality Criteria [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(1): 18-30
Methodologies for Deriving Aquatic Life Criteria (ALC): Discussion of ALC for Chemicals Causing Reproductive Toxicity   PDF download
Jin Xiaowei, Wang Zijian, Wang Yeyao, Liu Na
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20140404001
Abstract: Chemicals causing reproductive toxicity (CCRT) can cause the change of the population and community by affecting biological reproduction due to its specific toxicological mode of action (MOA). It has been recognized that aquatic life criteria based on traditional acute and chronic endpoints of toxicity are unable to provide adequate protection because some chemicals may affect reproductive fitness of aquatic organisms at much lower concentrations. This review was undertaken to identify key outstanding issues of ALC deriving for CCRT, including the need for and relevance of acute toxicity data and a criteria maximum concentration (CMC), defining minimum data requirements in terms of taxonomic coverage, defining appropriate chronic toxicity data and effect endpoints. In addition, a predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) of 0.12 μg•L-1 were derived for nonylphenol (NP) based on literature reproduction data. This result is lesser by a factor of 50 than the CCC of 6.59 μg•L-1 derived by use of acute to chronic ratios (ACRs) recommended by US EPA. Therefore, toxicity data based on their reproductive toxicity (including fecundity, fertility, hatchability, multi-generational effects and changes in the population, and etc.) is more suitable for ALC deriving for CCRT.
Citation: Jin Xiaowei, Wang Zijian, Wang Yeyao, Liu Na Methodologies for Deriving Aquatic Life Criteria (ALC): Discussion of ACL for Chemicals Causing Reproductive Toxicity [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(1): 31-39
Advances and Prospective of Research on Atmospheric Environment Criteria of VOCs (PFOS)  PDF download
Li Hong, Li Lei, Xu Linghong, Wang Zongshuang, Zhang Xingmin, Wang Xuezhong, Duan Jingchun, Xia Fenmei, Zhang Zhengzheng
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20150106001
Abstract: Many species of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) may have a variety of harmful health effects to human beings, and VOCs play a significant role in the atmospheric environment. The pollution of VOCs in the atmospheric environment of some regions in China has become a serious problem in recent years; therefore, pollution control of VOCs in the atmospheric environment is important for the improvement of ambient air quality and the protection of human health. Atmospheric environment criteria of VOCs have been formulated in some developed countries or ambient air quality guidelines of VOCs have been designated by some international organizations, which is very helpful to the implementation of the control countermeasures of VOCs in the atmosphere or to the environmental management of VOCs pollution. However, atmospheric environment criteria of VOCs have not been developed in China up to now, thus it is necessary to carry out the systematic research work in this field in China. In this paper, some atmospheric environment criteria of VOCs formulated by developed countries and international organizations were first summarized, then the study status of atmospheric environment criteria of VOCs in China was introduced, and the research needs of atmospheric environment criteria of VOCs in China were analyzed. Finally, the suggestion was put forwarded for the future research on atmospheric environment criteria of VOCs in China.
Citation: Li Hong, Li Lei, Xu Linghong, Wang Zongshuang, Zhang Xingmin, Wang Xuezhong, Duan Jingchun, Xia Fenmei, Zhang Zhengzheng Advances and Prospective of Research on Atmospheric Environment Criteria of VOCs (PFOS)[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(1): 40-57 
Some Relative Problems of the Equilibrium Partition Method for Derivation of Soil-Environmental Quality Criteria   PDF download
Teng Yong, Zhou Qixing
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20140601001
Abstract: The systematic and comprehensive research on the soil-environmental quality criteria is of great urgency to promote the revision process of soil-environmental quality standards. Because of the close relationships between soil and water and the earlier start of studies on water ecotoxicology and water-quality criteria, it is of the practical significance and value to some degree to carry out the research on the conversion between water-quality criteria and soil-environmental quality criteria. At first, the distribution of toxic pollutants in a soil-water system is briefly expounded on the basis of their influencing factors and environmental behavior. Then, the EqP theory and its application in the field of environmental quality criteria are generally introduced. Next, the bottleneck problems about the application of the EqP method in the development of soil-environmental quality criteria are discussed from four aspects, that is, the uncertainty of the EqP method, the controversial problems about the selection of toxic data, the limitation of Koc and the selection of determining methods for the partition coefficients. Finally, the research on soil-environmental quality criteria is summarized and prospected.
Citation: Teng Yong, Zhou Qixing Some Relative Problems of the Equilibrium Partition Method for Derivation of Soil-Environmental Quality Criteria[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(1): 58-65
Review on Recent Approaches for Marine Environmental Risk Assessment of Active Substances in Antifouling Paints)  PDF download
Mei Chengfang, Chen Jinlin, Tian Yajing, Liang Yanzhen, Liang Huijun, Ma Lianying, Sun Guoping, Xu Meiying, Luan Tiangang, Zeng Guoqu
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20140707001
Abstract: Potential ecological risk for marine environment and human health posed by active substances in antifouling paints has been a global concern. Some developed countries have established the techniques on marine environmental risk assessment of these active substances, while in China the relevant researches are still blank. The given article is inclined to make a research review over the background, laws and regulations, technical standards and the advances of the assessment of marine environment risk brought about by the active substance in antifouling paints. The key technologies and methodologies around the issues of hazard and exposure assessment were explored. In hazard assessment, species selection principles, toxicity data quality requirements, methods of deriving the predicted no effect concentrations (PNEC) and their application ranges were compared and evaluated. In exposure assessment, estimation and correction methods of release rates of active substances, models for calculating the predicted environmental concentrations (PEC), the exposure scenarios and their limitations were discussed in detail. This may afford reference and scientific basis for the study on marine environment risk assessment of these kinds of active substance in our country and provide some information on the emphasis and direction of future research.
Citation: Mei Chengfang, Chen Jinlin, Tian Yajing, Liang Yanzhen, Liang Huijun, Ma Lianying, Sun Guoping, Xu Meiying, Luan Tiangang, Zeng Guoqu Review on Recent Approaches for Marine Environmental Risk Assessment of Active Substances in Antifouling Paints)[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(1): 66-80
Application of Interspecies Correlation Estimation (ICE) Models in the Study of Water Quality Criteria  PDF download
Feng Chenglian, Fu Weiqiang, Dyer Scott, Fan Ming, Wu Fengchang
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20140610001
Abstract: Water quality criteria study is mainly based on the experimental toxicity data of species. For the chemicals that have few or incomplete toxicity data, the water quality criteria study will be negatively affected. This paper introduced rationale and methodology of interspecies correlation estimation (ICE) models from the angle of the water quality criteria methods. And their application in deriving water quality criteria was comprehensively analyzed. The case study of zinc proved the applicability of ICE in deriving water quality criteria for China. In addition, the uncertainty and the applicability of the ICE model were analyzed. Finally, the development of ICE models and their potential use for assessing water quality were also explored in future. [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(1): 81-87
Application of tissue residue approach in aquatic life criteria  PDF download
Zhang Ruiqing, Wu Fengchang
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20140603001
Abstract: Aquatic life criteria have been a significant basis for ecological risk assessment and water environmental management, playing an important role in treatment, control and management of water pollution. The toxicity thresholds and environmental criteria based on concentration of chemical in water or sediment are always influenced by environmental and biological parameters, resulting in uncertainty and variability. However, tissue-based toxicity dose metrics can reduce the uncertainty and variability, and have distinct advantages in toxicity effects and environmental criteria of chemicals, especially of the bioaccumulative chemicals. This article deals with the applications of tissue residue approach in derivation of aquatic life criteria, and gives a detailed review on the concept, advantage, application of tissue residue approach, and methodologies for deriving tissue residue criteria. The application issues of tissue residue approach and recommendations are suggested. This will promote the research of theories and methodologies of environmental criteria and ecological risk assessment, and provide technical support to control and management of water pollution.
Citation: Zhang Ruiqing, Wu Fengchang Application of tissue residue approach in aquatic life criteria [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(1): 88-100
Review of Environmental Behavior and Toxicity of Silver Nanoparticles in the Aquatic Environment  PDF download
Yi Jun, Huang Jun, Cheng Jinping
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20140314003
Abstract: The environmental behaviour and ecological impact of nano-materials have attracted increasing attention in recent years. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are the most frequently used nano-materials. This review summarizes research progress on the behavior and toxicity of AgNPs in the aquatic environment. Occurrence, environmental behavior, toxicity to various microorganisms, and the factors influencing toxicity of AgNPs are summarized. Finally, perspectives for future research regarding AgNPs in estuarine environment are discussed.
Citation: Yi Jun, Huang Jun, Cheng Jinping Review of Environmental Behavior and Toxicity of Silver Nanoparticles in the Aquatic Environment [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(1): 101-109
Study on Tissue Residue Guidelines of DDTs for Protection of Aquatic Mammalian Species in ChinaDifferent Trophic Levels PDF download
Research Articles
Study on Tissue Residue Guidelines of DDTs for Protection of Aquatic Mammalian Species in China  PDF download
Su Hailei, Feng Chenglian, Chang Hong, Mu Yunsong, Wu Fengchang
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20140514002
Abstract: As a chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticide that has been used worldwide, DDT and its primary metabolites named DDE and DDD (collected as DDTs) is one typical bioaccumulative and persistent toxic substances. Because of the lipophilic nature and persistence, DDTs could biomagnify in wildlife that feed at higher trophic levels through food chain and could accordingly cause adverse effects to aquatic mammalian. Studies about effects of DDTs on mammals were reviewed. The Tissue Residue Guidelines (TRGs) for protection of aquatic mammals in China were derived by use of species sensitivity distribution (SSD) and toxicity percentile rank method (TPRM). The TRGs of DDTs for aquatic mammals derived by SSD and TPRM were derived to be 23.9 and 22.7 ng•g-1 food (wet weight), respectively. The WQCs of DDTs for protecting aquatic mammals were 188.2 and 178.7 pg•L-1, respectively. The risk of DDTs to aquatic mammals was assessed based on TRGs derived in this study and the concentrations of DDTs in fish in China. The results could be used in risk assessments of DDTs to mammals in China and provide scientific foundation for risk management of DDTs.
Citation: Su Hailei, Feng Chenglian, Chang Hong, Mu Yunsong, Wu Fengchang Study on Tissue Residue Guidelines of DDTs for Protection of Aquatic Mammalian Species in China[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(1): 110-118
Predicted No Effect Concentration of Bisphenol A (BPA) Based on Different Toxicological Endpoints  PDF download
Feng Chenglian, Wang Hao, Wang Ying, Wu Fengchang
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20140610002
Abstract: Bisphenol A (BPA) has been confirmed to be an endocrine disrupting chemical. In the present study, the BPA toxicity data were classified based on different toxicological endpoints. Then, the acute and chronic PNEC (predicted no effect concentration) for protecting aquatic life were derived by use of species sensitivity distribution approach. The results showed that the acute and chronic PNECs of BPA derived from the estrogen effect data were 25.11 μg•L-1 and 1.075 μg•L-1, respectively; while for all the toxicity data, the corresponding PNECs were 355.7 μg•L-1 and 7.549 μg•L-1, respectively. Therefore, estrogen effects of BPA to organism were more sensitive than other effects. It is recommended that the PNECs for endocrine disrupting chemicals should be derived based on different toxicological endpoints. The results in the present study could provide data support for the establishment and revision of water quality standard in China.
Citation: Feng Chenglian, Wang Hao, Wang Ying, Wu Fengchang Predicted No Effect Concentration of Bisphenol A (BPA) Based on Different Toxicological Endpoints [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(1): 119-129
Derivation of Freshwater Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria for Xylene and Their Preliminary Application in Risk Assessment in China   PDF download
Liu Tingting, Zheng Xin, Yan Zhenguang, Liu Zhengtao
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20141027001
Abstract: Ecotoxicity data of xylene to resident freshwater organisms in China were collected and screened. The freshwater organisms covered insect, crustacean, fish, amphibian, annelids, mollusk, rotifer and phytoplankton. Analysis of the ecotoxicity data showed that crustacean species were the most sensitive to xylene. The freshwater aquatic life criteria for xylene were calculated according to the technical guidelines of the US. The acute and chronic criteria threshold values of xylene were determined at 1.41 mg•L-1 and 0.57 mg•L-1, respectively. These values were then adopted to perform preliminary ecological risk assessment on the exposure levels of xylene in some freshwater ecosystems in China. The results of risk assessment showed that xylene didn’t pose potential risk to aquatic organism in these waterbodies. This study will provide valuable information for the revision of the water quality standard of xylene and management of ambient water environment.
Citation: Liu Tingting, Zheng Xin, Yan Zhenguang, Liu Zhengtao Derivation of Freshwater Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria for Xylene and Their Preliminary Application in Risk Assessment in China [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(1): 130-138
The Study of Acute Ecological Threshold (PNECs) of Three Typical Compounds Based on the Acute Toxicity of Native Aquatic Species  PDF download
Lei Bingli, Xu Jie, Sun Yanfeng, Yu Zhiqiang, Wang Yipei, Zeng Xiangying
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20140606001
Abstract: Prediction of no effect concentration (PNEC) is an important basis for the ecological risk management of pollutants. The acute toxicities of three typical pollutants (pentachlorophenol, nitrobenzene, cadmium chloride) to 10 aquatic organisms were tested, and their acute PNECs were calculated based on the toxicity data obtained from the toxicity test results in this study. At the same time, the acute PNEC values were also calculated based on the toxicity data collected from ECOTOX database and combined toxicity data from ECOTOX database and the toxicity test results in this study. The comparison of acute PNECs obtained by three toxicity data sources was performed and it is found that acute PNECs of nitrobenzene based on the toxicity data tested in this study are the lowest. While acute PNECs of pentachlorophenol and cadmium chloride based on three toxicity data sources are very similar. The possible reasons are that the aquatic organisms such as Cipangopaludina chinensis and Pseudorasbora parva are very sensitive to nitrobenzene in this study, and the acute lethal data size of nitrobenzene in ECOTOX database are very small and the values of acute toxicity data are higher than those of the sensitive species in this study. With respect to nitrobenzene, the toxicity data of pentachlorophenol and cadmium chloride are very abundant in ECOTOX database and include different sensitive species. It is indicated that for compounds such as pentachlorophenol and cadmium chloride with large toxicity data size and including toxicity data of sensitive species, a reliable PNECs could be calculated directly based on the toxicity data in ECOTOX database, while for the compounds such as nitrobenzene with small toxicity data size in ECOTOX database, toxicity test should be carried out to local sensitive species to calculate a reliable PNECs.
Citation: Lei Bingli, Xu Jie, Sun Yanfeng, Yu Zhiqiang, Wang Yipei, Zeng Xiangying The Study of Acute Ecological Threshold (PNECs) of Three Typical Compounds Based on the Acute Toxicity of Native Aquatic Species[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(1): 139-150
Rationality Analysis of the Existing Marine Water Quality Standard (GB 3097-1997): A Case Study on Lead and Methyl-parathion  PDF download
Wang Juying, Mu Jingli, Wang Ying
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20140530002
Abstract: The high marine water quality criterion (HSWC) and low marine water quality criterion (LSWC) of lead and methyl-parathion derived by species sensitivity distribution (SSD) method were analyzed and compared with their limit values of marine water quality standards (GB 3097-1997). Results indicated that the existing marine water quality standards in China cannot provide proper protection for the most of marine organisms due to the lack of adequate scientific evidence,, and there was a problem of ‘over-protection’ or ‘under-protection’ for marine organisms by different standards of pollutants. Combined with the water quality monitoring data of Chinese coast, the rationality of seawater quality standard (GB 3097-1997) was investigated. Based on these, the countermeasures and suggestions on the development of Chinese marine water criteria and standards were proposed in this study.
Citation: Wang Juying, Mu Jingli, Wang Ying Rationality Analysis of the Existing Marine Water Quality Standard (GB 3097-1997): A Case Study on Lead and Methyl-parathion [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(1): 151-159
Derivation of Marine Water Quality Criteria and Assessment of Ecological Risk of Nitrobenzene in China  PDF download
Wang Ying, Mu Jingli, Wang Juying
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20140530001
Abstract: Nitrobenzene is one of the most important industrial raw materials. In the present study, marine water quality criteria of nitrobenzene in China were derived by species sensitivity distribution (SSD) method based on the collection of toxicity data from native marine species and toxicological experiments conducted on 8 marine species typical in China. The ecological risk of nitrobenzene in surface water of Jiaojiang Estuary was then assessed by two probability ecological risk assessment methods. Results demonstrated that the high seawater quality criterion and low seawater quality criteria of nitrobenzene were 1.42 and 0.037 mg•L-1, respectively, close with their freshwater water quality criteria derived by SSD method. The hazard quotient probability distribution and joint probability curve results indicated that nitrobenzene posed potential ecological risk to aquatic organisms in Jiaojiang Estuary. The corresponding measurements should be therefore taken by the management agencies to control the potential risk. The present study is expected to provide scientific references and guidance for the study of water quality criteria and ecological risk assessment, as well as the development of marine water quality standard of nitrobenzene in China.
Citation: Wang Ying, Mu Jingli, Wang Juying Derivation of Marine Water Quality Criteria and Assessment of Ecological Risk of Nitrobenzene in China[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(1): 160-168
Development of Acute Aquatic Toxicity Criteria for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon in Oil Spill Based on Species Sensitivity Distributions  PDF download
Mu Jingli, Jin Fei, Wang Juying, Wang Ying, Cong Yi
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20140522001
Abstract: The impact of oil spill on aquatic organisms and the influence of dispersants on the toxicity of crude oil have been main concerns in emergency response and risk assessment of oil spill. In this study, a total of 90 toxicity data obtained using standard test methods were selected and applied in the derivation of acute toxicity benchmark of total petroleum hydrocarbon for aquatic organism protection and hazard concentrations (HCs) through species sensitivity distribution (SSD) method. The 90 toxicity data contain 37 sets of data from water accommodated fraction of oil (WAF) and 53 sets of data from chemically dispersed water accommodated fraction of oil (CEWAF) including 15 oils and 11 dispersants in 22 species. Fifth percentile hazard concentrations (HC5s) were calculated from the SSDs and used to assess the effects on water column biota by chemically treated oil spills and the impacts of exposure test conditions (flow, semi-static, and static) on the development of toxicity benchmarks. Results expressed by nominal concentrations possibly overestimate the toxicity of CEWAF compared with that of WAF, while there was only small difference in the HC5s derived based on WAF and CEWAF. The derived aquatic toxicity criteria value by SSD for a short exposure was 0.38 mg•L-1 (TPH). Fish is more sensitive to oil than crustacean. Application of SSDs appears to be a feasible and reasonable approach to develop oil toxicity criteria and assess risks of oil spill.
Citation: Mu Jingli, Jin Fei, Wang Juying, Wang Ying, Cong Yi Development of Acute Aquatic Toxicity Criteria for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon in Oil Spill Based on Species Sensitivity Distributions [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(1): 169-181
Environmental Risk Assessment of Irgarol 1051 Used in Antifouling Paints of Ships in Shanghai Harbor Areas   PDF download
Liang Yihuai, Liu Min, Deng Yunyun, Qiao Yanling, Ding Qiong, Yin Haowen
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20140504002
Abstract: Irgarol 1051 is a biocidally active substance commonly used in antifouling paints on the hulls of ships. This study aimed to assess the potential risks of Irgarol 1051 to the marine environment. Towards this objective, hazard assessment, exposure assessment and risk characterization were performed following the instructions of ISO 13073-1. Using previously published literature information available from public databases, we investigated physical and chemical properties, environmental behavior, and ecotoxicity of Irgarol 1051 to evaluate its environmental hazards. The predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) of Irgarol 1051 was calculated using the approach of assessment factor. Its release rate into seawater was estimated by the mass-balance calculation method, and the predicted environment concentrations (PEC) of emission scenarios, such as the container ship harbor area, marina and shipping lane of Shanghai Yangshan Deep-water Port were derived, respectively, by using a validated computer model MAMPEC v3.0. By comparing the risk quotients, i.e., the ratio of PEC to PNEC, the substance could be assessed as “risk of concern” for seawater in the harbor area.
Citation: Liang Yihuai, Liu Min, Deng Yunyun, Qiao Yanling, Ding Qiong, Yin Haowen Environmental Risk Assessment of Irgarol 1051 Used in Antifouling Paints of Ships in Shanghai Harbor Areas [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(1): 182-190
Deriving Aquatic Water Quality Criteria for Copper in Taihu Lake by Probabilistic Species Sensitivity Distributions   PDF download
Hou Jun, Zhao Qianyuan, Wang Chao, Wang Peifang, Miao Lingzhan, Lv Bowen
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20141102002
Abstract: Acute and chronic water quality criteria of copper for Taihu are derived to be 14.57 μg•L-1 and 3.26 μg•L-1 by the method of probabilistic species sensitivity distribution, respectively. Moreover, the results show that invertebrates are more sensitive than vertebrates, and crustaceans are more sensitive than fishes. Our method is superior to the traditional species sensitivity distribution. In our method, the toxicity effects are considered fully and reasonably, and data are fitted more efficiently. The amount of data exhibits little effect on the results. Furthermore, the method exhibits higher stability. The results can be served as reference of water quality standard of copper in Taihu. It can provide technical support for water environment management.
Citation: Li Feng, Shi Hui Deriving Aquatic Water Quality Criteria for Copper in Taihu Lake by Probabilistic Species Sensitivity Distributions[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(1): 191-203

 

Exploring the Feasibility of Establishing Conductivity Criteria for Macroinvertebrate Based on the Field Investigations  PDF download
Zhang Yuan, Ding Sen, Zhao Qian, Gao Xin, Zhao Rui, Meng Wei
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20140531002
Abstract: Establishing the criteria of water quality is the basis for protecting aquatic organisms and ecosystem. The level of conductivity is determined by the concentration of ions dissolved in the water. Several studies have shown that conductivity affects the survival of aquatic organisms and stability of macroinvertebrate community. Due to the complexity of composition of dissolved icon, it is difficult to establish the conductivity criteria for aquatic organisms on the basis of experimental data. In the present work, we used the methods from US EPA to establish the conductivity criteria based on the field data. Moreover, we utilized epidemiology scoring method to explore the feasibility whether setting the relevant conductivity criteria is feasible in China. Three research contents were conducted to test the feasibility, including (1) Are macroinvertebrate sensitive species affected strongly by conductivity, (2) Does the anthropogenic disturbance impose toxicity effect on aquatic ecosystem through conductivity and (3) Do some other environmental factors affect the accuracy of setting the criteria? The study area is located in northeast China which consists of two different rivers, namely Hun River and Taizi River. The field data were collected during August 2009 to May 2010. The results showed that conductivity decreased the occurrence frequency of sensitive species significantly. The ratio of agriculture and urban land use increased the conductivity level by analyzing the correlation between landuse and conductivity. Conductivity was the main reason for dying out of sensitive species by analyzing the effects of other environmental factors which may cause the same influence. In summary, establishing conductivity criteria based on field data is feasible, and moreover, some new ideas and methods should be applied for the future studies in relation to the water criteria.
Citation: Zhang Yuan, Ding Sen, Zhao Qian, Gao Xin, Zhao Rui, Meng Wei Exploring the Feasibility of Establishing Conductivity Criteria for Macroinvertebrate Based on the Field Investigations [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(1): 204-214
Non-Parametric Kernel Density Estimation of Developing Species Sensitivity Distributions  PDF download
Wang Ying, Feng Chenglian, Huang Wenxian, Liu Yuedan, Ma Yan, Zhang Ruiqing, Wu Fengchang
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20140527002
Abstract: To address the inadequacies associated with parametric density estimations for species sensitivity distributions, we developed a new probabilistic model based on non-parametric kernel density estimation and proposed related optimal bandwidths and testing methods as well. With inorganic mercury as the target compound, the non-parametric kernel density estimation method and three conventional parametric density estimation methods were used to derive acute water quality criteria for protection of aquatic species in China. The results demonstrated that the new probabilistic model was superior over the conventional parametric density estimations in deriving water quality criteria for inorganic mercury, as well as in constructing species sensitivity distribution. The proposed method has enriched the methodological foundation for water quality criteria and provided solid support for protection of aquatic organisms.
Citation: Wang Ying, Feng Chenglian, Huang Wenxian, Liu Yuedan, Ma Yan, Zhang Ruiqing, Wu Fengchang Non-Parametric Kernel Density Estimation of Developing Species Sensitivity Distributions[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(1): 215-224
Screening of Native Rotifers, Hydra, Planaria for Deriving Aquatic Life Criteria   PDF download
Zheng Xin, Yan Zhenguang, Liu Zhengtao, Liu Tingting, Wang Xiaonan, Wu Jiangyue, Wang Weili
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20140604002
Abstract: Rotifers, hydra, planaria are important biological community in aquatic ecosystem. They play important role on the study of aquatic life criteria due to their high sensitivity to pollutants. On the basis of biota data in China, eight representative native rotifers, hydra, and planaria were selected. The pollutant acute toxicity data of these species were collected and screened according to the water quality criteria derivation guidelines of the US-EPA. The results of data analysis showed that there were thirteen categories of pollutants which were most toxic to these species, including heavy metals, pesticides, organic tin compounds, surfactants, and pyridylamino fungicides. The species sensitivities were classified by the cumulative probability from the sensitivity distribution curves of the most toxic pollutants. The analysis of the species sensitivity distribution showed that the cumulative probability of Brachionus calyciflorus, Hydra viridissima and Hydra vulgaris to copper were 6.5%, 8.5% and 10.4%, respectively. Hydra vulgaris to mercury was 6.3%. Keratella cochlearis and Lecane quadridentata to sodium pentachlorophenolate were 5.1% and 7.6%. Hydra oligactis and Hydra viridissima to bis(tributyltin) oxide were 6.9% and 13.8%, respectively. Brachionus calyciflorus to fluazinam was 6.7%. Dugesia japonica to carbon tetrachloride and sodium dodecylbenzenesulphonate were 6.7% and 7.1%. These results showed that Brachionus calyciflorus, Hydra viridissima were sensitive to copper, and Hydra vulgaris was sensitive to copper and mercury. Lecane quadridentata and Keratella cochleari were sensitive to pesticide. Hydra oligactis and Hydra viridissima were sensitive to organic tin compounds. Brachionu scalyciflorus were sensitive to pyridine amides fungicides. Dugesia japonica was sensitive to carbon tetrachloride and surfactant. These seven species may act as the test organisms for development of water quality criteria.
Citation: Zheng Xin, Yan Zhenguang, Liu Zhengtao, Liu Tingting, Wang Xiaonan, Wu Jiangyue, Wang Weili Screening of Native Rotifers, Hydra, Planaria for Deriving Aquatic Life Criteria [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(1): 225-234
Investigation on Environmental Factors Affecting the Freshwater Quality Criteria for Silver to Protect Aquatic Life in China  PDF download
Ma Yan, Wu Fengchang, Tan Weiqiang, Feng Chenglian, Zhang Ruiqing, Wang Ying, Bai Yingchen
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20140526002
Abstract: Water quality criteria are important basis for the establishment of water quality standards, as well as the assessment, prediction and control of water pollution. In the present study, toxicity data of 25 aquatic species from 20 taxonomic families and 6 phyla were screened with toxicity percentile rank method to obtain the water quality criteria of silver to protect freshwater biota. The results showed that, there was a power function relationship between criteria maximum concentration (CMC) of silver and water hardness with equation CMC=0.85×e[0.62(water hardness)-4.28] μg•L-1 . The criteria continuous concentration was 0.02 μg•L-1. Silver ions might show more toxicity to lower trophic level organisms (invertebrate) than higher trophic level organisms (vertebrate) from the toxicity data of local biota in China and USA. The differences of biota and sensitive species caused by the geographical conditions as well as the different criteria derivation method can also affect water quality criteria value.
Citation: Ma Yan, Wu Fengchang, Tan Weiqiang, Feng Chenglian, Zhang Ruiqing, Wang Ying, Bai Yingchen Investigation on Environmental Factors Affecting the Freshwater Quality Criteria for Silver to Protect Aquatic Life in China [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(1): 235-244
Estimation Precision in Frequency Analysis Process for Calculating the Reference Conditions of Lakes  PDF download
Wang Liang, Hua Zulin
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20140604001
Abstract: Estimation of reference conditions of lakes is one of the key steps for establishing criteria of lakes. The methods based on the frequency analysis, such as lake population distribution approach, frequency analysis approach, and trisection approach, were applied to calculate the reference conditions of lakes. The confidence intervals of reference conditions can not be given due to that the observational data is correlated and it is difficult to determine the probability distribution of the data. The problems caused by data correlations can be overcome by Moving Blocks Bootstrap Method and the confidence intervals could be worked out without any information on the distributions of observational data. As a case of Taihu Lake, the defects of Normal Distribution Way and common Bootstrap method in frequency analysis processes were shown. The results illustrated that the method was suitable for estimating the precision on reference conditions of lakes.
Citation:Wang Liang, Hua Zulin Estimation Precision in Frequency Analysis Process for Calculating the Reference Conditions of Lakes [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(1): 245-251
The Effects of Bisphenol A (BPA) Exposure on the Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in WHHL Rabbit  PDF download
Fang Chao, Ning Bo, Fan Jianglin, Dong Sijun
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20140331001
Abstract: In order to use an animal model that is more close to humans to study whether BPA exposure can accelerate the disorders of lipid and glucose metabolism in the setting of hyperlipidemia and explore the underlying toxic mechanisms. The Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbit was selected and exposed to 400 μg•kg-1 body weight BPA for 12 weeks by oral gavage. At 8 weeks, the fasting plasma glucose, insulin and lipid levels were detected. The intravenous insulin tolerance test (IVITT) was performed. At 12 weeks, the fasting plasma glucose, insulin and lipid levels were also detected, and the blood pressure and heart rate were analyzed as well. Then all the rabbits were anatomized. The pathological examination of lipid and glycogen accumulation in the heart and liver were observed through hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and periodic acid-schiff (PAS) staining. Meanwhile, the genes expression closely related to lipid and glucose metabolism was analyzed in the liver. Results showed that BPA accelerated insulin resistance in the WHHL rabbit after BPA exposure for 8 weeks, resulting in the increased of fasting plasma glucose and insulin levels at 12 weeks, and the change of some blood lipid levels (HDL-C, LDL-C and NEFA). At 12 weeks, the extent of coronary atherosclerosis lesions was not increased obviously. However, the hypertrophy of cardiac muscle cell was detected and lipid accumulation was observed in the cytoplasm, leading to arrhythmia. The liver weight was increased accompanied by lipid and glycogen accumulation in the hepatocyte. The related genes expression was up-regulated significantly. These results indicated that continuous exposure to BPA can accelerate the disorders of glucose and lipid metabolism in the WHHL rabbit, which may be associated with the insulin resistance and abnormal expression of related genes.
Citation: Fang Chao, Ning Bo, Fan Jianglin, Dong Sijun The Effects of Bisphenol A (BPA) Exposure on the Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in WHHL Rabbit [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(1): 252-262
Initial Evaluation on Gonadal and Oviductive Morphology and Sexually Dimorphic Gene Expression of Xenopus laveis after Short-term Exposure to 17beta-Estrodiol  PDF download
Xu Wei, Lou Qinqin, Wei Wuji, Qin Zhanfen
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20140519001
Abstract: Reproductive endocrine disruption by environmental estrogens in amphibians has aroused great concern. The research in the field was focused on effects of long-term exposure on gonadal differentiation and development. In this study, Xenopus laevis frogs (6 month old) were exposed to 10 nmol•L-1 estradiol (E2, a model compound) for six days to investigate the effects on gonadal and oviductive morphology as well as mRNA expression of sexually dimorphic genes. It was found that 6-day exposure to E2 had no significant effect on testicular and ovarian morphology, whereas it seemed to exhibit a weak promoting effect on egg and sperm development. E2 made oviducts widen and curve, exhibiting a promoting effect on oviductive development. Compared with the control, E2 exposure significantly inhibited expression levels of cyp11a1, 3βHSD, Srd5α and ARO, which are related to sex hormone synthesis and transformation, in testis and ovary, with no effect on the expression of cyp17. E2 also decreased LHβ and FSHβ expression in brain. Several genes that are related to sex differentiation and gonadal development, including Dax, AR, ERα, TF Ⅲ A and TBPL2, were not affected by E2 at the transcriptional levels. By contrast, E2 significantly promoted Sox3 expression in the ovary and Emi2 in the brain, and inhibited Dmrt1 expression in the brain. Therefore, oviductive morphology and the expression levels of Srd5α, cyp11a1, 3βHSD, ARO and Sox3 in the gonad as well as LHβ, FSHβ, Dmrt1 and Emi2 in the brain can be used as sensitive endpoints. Our study can provide technical reference for developing a short-term assay for evaluating estrogenic effects of chemicals on amphibians.
Citation: Xu Wei, Lou Qinqin, Wei Wuji, Qin Zhanfen Initial Evaluation on Gonadal and Oviductive Morphology and Sexually Dimorphic Gene Expression of Xenopus laveis after Short-term Exposure to 17beta-Estrodiol[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(1): 263-270
Probabilistic Ecological Risk Assessment of Estradiol in the Effluents of Wastewater Treatment Plants in Beijing  PDF download
Wang Tong, Sun Fu, Zeng Siyu, He Miao, Chen Jining
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20140423003
Abstract: With the augmentation of rivers and lakes using reclaimed wastewater expanding in Beijing, there have been growing concerns about the ecological risk caused by estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemicals in the effluents of wastewater treatment plants (WTPs).The ecological risk of estradiol, as an example, in WTPs’ effluents was assessed with species sensitivity distribution (SSD) models and joint probability curves (JPCs). About 430 native species in Beijing were collected through literature review, among which 7 species found their toxicity data associated with estradiol in the ECOTOX database developed by US EPA. Seven SSD models were established to fit the available toxicity data including Normal distribution, Log-normal distribution, Logistic distribution, Log-logistic distribution, Weibull distribution, Burr Type III distribution and Gumbel distribution, and then the validated SSD models were applied to assess the ecological risk of estradiol caused by the effluents of secondary sedimentation tanks and 3 advanced treatment processes, i.e.coagulation-sedimentation-filtration-O3, ultrafiltration-O3, and ultrafiltration-activated carbon-O3, from typical WTPs in Beijing. The SSD models based on the toxicity data of estradiol with respect to the 7 native species of Beijing could be reasonably interpreted, and different types of SSD models had significant impact on the results of ecological risk assessment. Log-normal distribution, Log-logistic distribution, Weibull distribution and Burr Type III distribution were acceptable SSD models, and the best fitted model, Burr Type III distribution, gave the most conservative risk estimates. With Burr Type III distribution model, expected total risk of estradiol from the effluents of secondary sedimentation tanks and 3 advanced treatment processes was estimated to be0.070, 0.040, 0.036 and 0.026, respectively. The results could support future decision-making when defining protection goals of aquatic ecosystems and upgrading and retrofitting wastewater treatment processes in Beijing.
Citation: Wang Tong, Sun Fu, Zeng Siyu, He Miao, Chen Jining Probabilistic Ecological Risk Assessment of Estradiol in the Effluents of Wastewater Treatment Plants in Beijing [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(1): 271-280
Rapid Evaluation of Bioconcentration Potential for Phthalates Esters Using a Biomimetic Sampler  PDF download
Zhou Dongxing, Xu Yiping, Wang Zijian
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20140414001
Abstract: A negligible depletion sampling test of 12 phthalates esters (PAEs) was carried out using the biomimetic sampler, triolein embedded cellulose acetate membrane (TECAM), for 24 hours. The uptake kinetic parameters and membrane concentration factors (MCFs) of TECAMs were evaluated, as well as the correlation features among MCFs, bioconcentration factors (BCFs) and octanol-water coefficients (KOWs) of PAEs. The results showed that trends of uptake of the PAEs varied with the increase of hydrophobicity. Similar quadratic correlations could be observed between MCF–KOW and BCF–KOW of selected PAEs, whereas the regression of MCF–KOW showed better results. The reduction of BCFs compared to MCFs for the selected PAEs is thought to be due primarily to metabolism in the biotic media. Therefore, the biomimetic sampling method with TECAMs can be considered not only as a useful tool for rapid evaluation of bioconcentration potential, but also as a reference method for interpreting metabolic effects of nonpersistent organic chemicals such as PAEs.
Citation: Zhou Dongxing, Xu Yiping, Wang Zijian Rapid Evaluation of Bioconcentration Potential for Phthalates Esters Using a Biomimetic Sampler [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(1): 281-287
Assessing the Impact of Pesticides on Population Development of Chironomus kiiensis Based on Content of β-N-Acetyl-D-glucosaminidase  PDF download
Zhou Surui, Zhang Wenping, Li Shaonan, Zhu Guonian
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20140515001
Abstract: Risk assessment on population level is still challenged by its proper in terms of methodology. In this work, population development of Chironomus kiiensis was assessed by quantity of β-N-Acetyl-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase) released from the larvae. To do so, the NAGase was purified from the bodies and polyclonal antibodies were obtained by immunizing rabbits with the purified enzyme. Indirect and non-competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was employed to analyze specificity of the antibodies, and the results showed that the cross reactions was 4.41% for Daphnia carinata, 3.12% for Simocephalus vetulus, 3.40% for Moina macrocopa, 4.17% for Dolerocypris sinensis, 3.23% for Macrobrachium nipponense, 7.50% for Aedes albopictus, and <0.5% for Chlorella vulgaris. After being exposed for 12 days to pesticides, the EC50 based on residues of NAGase, which was determined by ELISA, was 1.201 μg•L-1for chlorpyrifos, 0.004 μg•L-1 for fenvalerate, and 0.628 μg•L-1 for abamectin. The EC50 determined by activity of NAGase was 1.477 μg•L-1 for chlorpyrifos, 0.005 μg•L-1 for fenvalerate, and 0.676 μg•L-1 for abamectin. However, the LC 50 were measured to be 4.817 μg•L-1 for chlorpyrifos, 0.095 μg•L-1 for fenvalerate, and 2.134 μg•L-1 for abamectin. Our results suggested that the impact of pesticides on population development of Chironomus kiiensis could be assessed distinctively by quantity of NAGase released by the larvae.
Citation: Zhou Surui, Zhang Wenping, Li Shaonan, Zhu Guonian Assessing the Impact of Pesticides on Population Development of Chironomus kiiensis Based on Content of β-N-Acetyl-D-glucosaminidase [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(1): 288-296
Acute and Chronic Toxic Effects of Pentachlorophenol on the Benthic Organisms in Sediments  PDF download
Zhong Wenjue, Zhang Yu, Han Yuwei, Zhu Lingyan
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20140528001
Abstract: This study was designed to assess the acute and chronic toxic effects of pentachlorophenol (PCP) on Chironomus kiiensis and Monopylephorus limosus in sediment. For Chironomus kiiensis, the median lethal concentrations (LC50) in 96 h and 10 d tests were 20.6 mg•kg-1 and 12.5 mg•kg-1, and the median effect concentration (EC50 ) of emergence in 28 d test was 0.79 mg•kg-1. PCP could delay the emergence time of Chironomus kiiensis, especially for female. Meanwhile, PCP could affect the sex ratio of the newly born Chironomus kiiensis. Compared with Chironomus kiiensis, PCP displayed lower toxicity to Monopylephorus limosus. The LC50 of PCP on Monopylephorus limosus in 96 h and 14 d test were 37.6 mg•kg-1 and 20.2 mg•kg-1, respectively. The EC50 of growth inhibition in 21 d test was 1.39 mg•kg-1. The results of this study would provide a basis for deriving the sediment quality criteria and assessing ecological risk of PCP.
Citation: Zhong Wenjue, Zhang Yu, Han Yuwei, Zhu Lingyan Acute and Chronic Toxic Effects of Pentachlorophenol on the Benthic Organisms in Sediments [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(1): 297-304
The Applicability of Lemna aequinoctialis to Growth Inhibition Test of Lemna minor   PDF download
Liang Yihuai, Zhang Kun, Zhang Jingji, Liu Min, Zhao Huaqing, Yin Haowen
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20140318001
Abstract: To validate whether native Lemna aequinoctialis (commonly found in China) is suitable for the growth inhibition test using Lemna minor as standard test organism, these two Lemna species were compared regarding to the measured toxicity endpoints and the difference in responses to chemical exposure. The correlations of total frond area, fresh weight and dry weight with frond number of L. minor and L. aequinoctialis were investigated. In compliant with Good Laboratory Practices (GLP), a seven-day semi-static toxicity test was performed using the two duckweeds exposed to 3,5-dichlorophenol (as reference substance) at concentrations from 1.0 mg•L-1 to 10 mg•L-1, according to “OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals No. 221 Lemna sp. Growth Inhibition Test”. It was found that cultivation conditions, test procedures and toxicity endpoints for L. minor were applicable to L. aequinoctialis. The test of the two duckweeds showed the similar time-effect relationship as well as the dose-effect relationship; and those effect concentrations at each level were comparable and approximate. In conclusion, L. aequinoctialis can serve as test organisms as L. minor. L. aequinoctialis can become a candidate of the national standard species in toxicity testing.
Citation: Liang Yihuai, Zhang Kun, Zhang Jingji, Liu Min, Zhao Huaqing, Yin Haowen The Applicability of Lemna aequinoctialis to Growth Inhibition Test of Lemna minor [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(1): 305-311
 
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