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蔡全领,胡献刚,周启星*. 石墨烯纳米材料对哺乳动物的毒性及其作用机制[J]. 生态毒理学报, 2017, 12(6): 1-10
石墨烯纳米材料对哺乳动物的毒性及其作用机制
Toxicity Mechanism of Graphene Nanomaterials to Mammals
投稿时间:2017-03-20  修订日期:2017-06-16
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897.20170320002
中文关键词:  石墨烯纳米材料  动物毒理学  细胞毒性  影响因素  毒性机制
英文关键词:graphene  biological toxicology  cytotoxicity  influencing factors  toxicity mechanism
基金项目:国家自然科学基金面上项目(21677080)
作者单位
蔡全领,胡献刚,周启星* 南开大学环境科学与工程学院环境污染过程与基准教育部重点实验室/天津市城市生态环境修复与污染防治重点实验室天津300350 
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中文摘要:
      石墨烯是一种新兴纳米材料,具有独特的电学和光学性质、超大的比表面积以及潜在的生物相容性,在材料和电子产业、能源、环境以及生物医学等领域得到广泛应用。与此同时,石墨烯的环境行为和生物毒性也随之引起日益广泛的关注。本文通过对石墨烯纳米材料的生物毒性、细胞毒性、毒性影响因素和毒性机制等相关研究进展进行总结。石墨烯纳米材料可通过气管滴注、吸入、静脉注射、腹腔注射以及口服等方式进入体内,通过机械屏障、血脑屏障和血液胎盘屏障等积累在肺、肝、脾等部位引起急性或者慢性损伤;目前有关石墨烯毒性机制的研究主要集中于线粒体损伤、DNA损伤、炎性反应、凋亡等终点及氧化应激参与的复杂信号通路,不同石墨烯纳米材料的浓度、尺寸、表面结构和官能团等对石墨烯的生物毒性影响不同。鉴于当前该领域研究的局限性,对石墨烯纳米材料生物毒性研究的发展方向进行了展望,进而为石墨烯材料的安全应用提供理论借鉴和实践参考。
  
AuthorAffiliation
Cai Quanling, Hu Xiangang, Zhou Qixing*Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria (Ministry of Education), Remediation and Pollution Control for Urban Ecological Environment, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China
英文摘要:
      Graphene, which is an emerging nanomaterial with unique electrical and optical properties, large specific surface area and the potential biological compatibility, has been widely applied in various fields, including materials and electronic industries, energy source, environmental science and biomedicine. Meanwhile, the environmental behaviors and biological toxicity of graphene also have attracted extensive attentions. This review mainly made a summary about the biological toxicity, cytotoxicity, and related influence factors and toxicity mechanisms of graphene. For those researches about toxicity of graphene, the materials enter into the organisms mainly through intratracheal instillation, inhalation, intravenous injection, intraperitoneal injection and oral administration. The intracellular graphene can cross through the mechanical barrier, blood-brain barrier and blood-placental barrier, and thus accumulate in the lung, liver, spleen, or other organs, so ultimately cause acute or chronic injuries. To date, the researches about the toxicity mechanisms of graphene mainly focused on oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage, DNA damage, inflammation, apoptosis and associated signaling pathway. Besides, the physicochemical characteristics of graphene, including its size, surface structure and functional groups, also have been reported to be connected with its toxicity in biological systems. Finally, the limitation of researches on graphene toxicity is pointed out and the prospect and development of researches on graphene toxicity is put forward. In conclusion, this review provides theoretical guidance for the safe application of graphene materials.
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