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-. 农药暴露的机制模型:蜜蜂毒理学的重要缺失[J]. 生态毒理学报, 2017, 12(3):
农药暴露的机制模型:蜜蜂毒理学的重要缺失
Mechanistic Modeling of Pesticide Exposure: The Missing Keystone of Honey Bee Toxicology
  
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897.201713etc
中文关键词:  
英文关键词:Behavioral toxicology  Pesticide risk assessment  Environmental modeling  Apis mellifera  Pollinator  Foraging
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作者单位
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中文摘要:
      杀虫剂在最近的蜜蜂数量减少中所扮演的角色是有争议的,部分原因是实地研究常常无法检测到实验室研究所预测的效果。这种不一致性突出了蜜蜂毒理学研究领域的一个关键空白:对蜜蜂在它们的环境中杀虫剂暴露的模式和过程知之甚少。本文作者提出蜜蜂暴露杀虫剂的2个关键过程:1)工蜂采集花蜜的过程中收集农药;2)工蜂带回的农药在蜂巢中的再分配。工蜂收集农药的过程必须被理解为环境污染和蜜蜂觅食活动之间的时空交集。这意味着农药暴露是分配的,而不是离散的,觅食工蜂的一个子集可能会获得有害剂量的农药,而群体暴露将会显得安全。蜂箱中农药的分布是一个复杂的过程,主要是由群体成员之间食物转移的相互作用而产生,而这一过程中花粉和花蜜之间有重要的区别。因此应该优先将关于蜜蜂生物学的大量文献用于发展更严谨的蜂蜜农药暴露机制模型。与效应机制模型结合,暴露机制模型具有整合蜜蜂毒理学领域的潜力,以促进风险评估和基础研究。
精选自Sponsler, D. B. and Johnson, R. M. (2017), Mechanistic modeling of pesticide exposure: The missing keystone of honey bee toxicology. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 36: 871–881. doi: 10.1002/etc.3661
详情请见http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/etc.3661/full
  
AuthorAffiliation
Douglas B. Sponsler, Reed M. Johnson *Department of Entomology, The Ohio State University, Wooster, Ohio, USA
英文摘要:
      The role of pesticides in recent honey bee losses is controversial, partly because field studies often fail to detect effects predicted by laboratory studies. This dissonance highlights a critical gap in the field of honey bee toxicology: there exists little mechanistic understanding of the patterns and processes of exposure that link honey bees to pesticides in their environment. The authors submit that 2 key processes underlie honey bee pesticide exposure: 1) the acquisition of pesticide by foraging bees, and 2) the in-hive distribution of pesticide returned by foragers. The acquisition of pesticide by foraging bees must be understood as the spatiotemporal intersection between environmental contamination and honey bee foraging activity. This implies that exposure is distributional, not discrete, and that a subset of foragers may acquire harmful doses of pesticide while the mean colony exposure would appear safe. The in-hive distribution of pesticide is a complex process driven principally by food transfer interactions between colony members, and this process differs importantly between pollen and nectar. High priority should be placed on applying the extensive literature on honey bee biology to the development of more rigorously mechanistic models of honey bee pesticide exposure. In combination with mechanistic effects modeling, mechanistic exposure modeling has the potential to integrate the field of honey bee toxicology, advancing both risk assessment and basic research.
View more in http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/etc.3661/full
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