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潘国浩1,2,刘洋1,赵永强3,付强1,*,高军4,曹迅1,张莹莹1,张志强1,严金龙1,#. 淋洗脱盐对滨海滩涂不同植被演替带土壤重金属的影响[J]. 生态毒理学报, 2018, 13(1): 210-218
淋洗脱盐对滨海滩涂不同植被演替带土壤重金属的影响
Effects of Leaching Desalination on the Heavy Metals in Soils of Vegetation Successions of the Pristine Tidal Flat
投稿时间:2018-02-10  修订日期:2018-03-16
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897.20180210001
中文关键词:  重金属  围垦  滩涂  淋洗脱盐  植被演替
英文关键词:heavy metals  reclamation  tidal flat  leaching desalination  vegetation successions
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41301551);江苏省自然科学基金项目(BK20130426;BK20131219);国家海洋局海洋生态环境科学与工程重点实验室开放项目(MESE-2013-04)
作者单位
潘国浩1,2,刘洋1,赵永强3,付强1,*,高军4,曹迅1,张莹莹1,张志强1,严金龙1,# 1. 盐城工学院环境科学与工程学院江苏省环境保护海涂生态与污染控制重点实验室盐城 224051 2. 常州大学环境与安全工程学院常州 213164 3. 盐城湿地珍禽国家级自然保护区盐城 224057 4. 环境保护部南京环境科学研究所南京 210042 
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中文摘要:
      为研究围垦对滨海滩涂土壤重金属的影响,采用土柱实验模拟淋洗脱盐过程,分析了滨海滩涂不同植被演替带(光滩、互花米草滩、碱蓬滩、芦苇滩)土壤在淋洗脱盐前后重金属(As、Hg、Cd、Cr、Pb、Cu、Zn)含量的变化,评估了围垦可能导致的滩涂重金属流失量。研究表明,淋洗脱盐后,各植被演替带土壤重金属均显著降低,相比而言,Hg、Cr更易淋洗(淋洗率分别为57.2%、49.9%),而Zn不易淋洗(淋洗率18.5%);不同植被演替带土壤重金属淋洗率表现为:光滩>互花米草滩>碱蓬滩>芦苇滩,光滩土壤重金属更易淋洗,而芦苇滩重金属不易淋洗;根据土壤容重、含水率、淋洗率及重金属含量计算重金属流失量发现,不同植被演替带重金属流失量同样表现为:光滩>互花米草滩>碱蓬滩>芦苇滩;除互花米草滩As流失量较高外(19.26 kg ha-1),其他重金属流失量均表现为光滩最高,光滩围垦可能会造成更多的重金属流失;在仅考虑淋洗脱盐情况下,以江苏省2010~2020年围垦规划270万亩计,仅表层20 cm滩涂土壤,通过围垦即可能导致As、Hg、Cd、Cr、Pb、Cu、Zn流失2 102.5、7.4、421.3、8 587.9、4 376.3、2 404.3 t,由围垦导致的滩涂重金属流失风险值得关注。
  
AuthorAffiliation
Pan Guohao1,2, Liu Yang1, Zhao Yongqiang3, Fu Qiang1,*, Gao Jun4, Cao Xun1, Zhang Yingying1, Zhang Zhiqiang1 , Yan Jinlong1,#1. Key Laboratory for Ecology and Pollution Control of Coastal Wetlands (Environmental Protection Department of Jiangsu Province), School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Yancheng 224051,China 2. School of Environmental and Safety Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164, China 3. Jiangsu Yancheng Wetland National Nature Reserve, Rare Birds, Yancheng 224057, China 4. Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences, MEP, Nanjing 210042, China
英文摘要:
      To explore the effect of reclamation on the heavy metals in soils of coastal tidal flat, we analyzed the variation of concentrations of heavy metals (As, Hg, Cd, Cr, Pb, Cu, and Zn) in soils of vegetation successions of the pristine tidal flat before and after fresh water leaching desalination using a soil column simulation experiment. The losses of heavy metals induced by reclamation of tidal flat were also evaluated. Results showed that the concentrations of heavy metals in soils of vegetation successions all decreased significantly after leaching desalination. Comparatively, Hg and Cr could be eluted more easily (the leaching percentages were 57.2% and 49.9%, respectively), and Zn could be eluted harder (the leaching percentages was 18.5%). The leaching percentages of the vegetation successions showed: bare flat > Spartina alterniflora flat > Suaeda glauca flat > Phragmites australi flat. The heavy metals in bare flat could be eluted more easily, while in Phragmites australi flat could be eluted harder. The losses of heavy metals in tidal flat calculated by the soil bulk density and moisture content, leaching percentage and heavy metal concentration also showed: bare flat > Spartina alterniflora flat > Suaeda glauca flat > Phragmites australi flat. The losses of heavy metals were all higher in bare flat, except for As in Spartina alterniflora flat (19.26 kg ha-1). Based on the reclamation programme of Jiangsu Province (2.7 million mu from 2010 to 2020), reclamation could make As, Hg, Cd, Cr, Pb, Cu, and Zn in topsoil (0~20 cm) lose 2 102.5, 7.4, 421.3, 8 587.9, 4 376.3, and 2 404.3 t, respectively, under the condition that we only think about the fresh water leaching desalination. More attention should be paid to the loss risk of heavy metals induced by the reclamation of tidal flat.
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