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王荣兴,李冬梅,张淑霞,肖文*. 中国西南不同湿地类型水鸟多样性评价[J]. 生态毒理学报, 2018, 13(4): 120-133
中国西南不同湿地类型水鸟多样性评价
Assessment of Waterbird Diversity among Wetland Subcategories in Southwest China
投稿时间:2018-06-09  修订日期:2018-08-09
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897.20180609001
中文关键词:  中国西南  湿地亚类  水鸟多样性  组成相似性  保护
英文关键词:Southwest China  wetland subcategories  waterbird diversity  composition similarity  conservation
基金项目:大理大学博士科研启动费(KYBS201701);国家自然科学基金(31760126);中国三江并流区域生物多样性协同创新中心;云南省高校洱海流域保护与可持续发展研究重点实验室;大理大学三江并流区域生物多样性保护与利用省创新团队
作者单位
王荣兴,李冬梅,张淑霞,肖文* 大理大学东喜玛拉雅研究院大理 671003 
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中文摘要:
      水鸟是反映湿地生态系统健康的指标之一,对不同湿地水鸟多样性进行评价能提出有利于湿地生态系统健康良性发展的湿地管理措施,亦能更好地保护水鸟资源。为缓解近年来中国自然湿地退化和消失的问题,中国政府积极推进实施了大量修复自然湿地和新建人工湿地的工程。然而受限于人力、物力和经费,当前对自然湿地和人工湿地水鸟多样性的系统调查和评价多局限于单一地点或局部区域。因水鸟的分布具有地域性,从地域尺度进行不同湿地类型水鸟多样性评价将更为客观,公众科学数据为区域大尺度数据获取提供了可能。本研究借助中国观鸟记录中心数据,比较了2014年1月至2018年2月中国西南4省(市)自然湿地和人工湿地的水鸟物种多样性和组成相似性;结果共记录到9目19科139种水鸟,其中有94.96%的物种分布于自然湿地,67.63%的物种分布于人工湿地;各类群水鸟在自然湿地中的物种数均高于人工湿地。结果说明自然湿地在水鸟保护中具有重要栖息地功能,人工湿地能为大部分水鸟提供栖息地,但不能完全代替自然湿地。自然湿地中的湖泊湿地、河流湿地和沼泽化草甸以及人工湿地中的水库、城市人工景观水面和娱乐水面是水鸟,特别是受威胁水鸟分布的重要湿地类型;建议政府部门重点对上述湿地亚类进行合理的规划和管理。
  
AuthorAffiliation
Wang Rongxing, Li Dongmei, Zhang Shuxia, Xiao Wen*Institute of Eastern-Himalaya Biodiversity Research, Dali University, Dali 671003, China
英文摘要:
      As one of the top food chain predators, waterbirds are regarded as important indicators of ecosystem condition, and their diversity and community composition can be used to evaluate and guide further wetland restoration and construction. In order to mitigate the adverse influences of degradation of natural wetlands, massive wetland restoration measures and construction of artificial wetlands have been implemented for the purpose of biodiversity conservation in China. However, due to the shortage of manpower, material resources and funds, the current systematic survey and evaluation of waterbird diversity in natural wetlands and constructed wetlands is limited to a single site or a local area. It will be more objective to evaluate the diversity at the regional scale because the natural distribution of waterbirds follows a regional pattern. The public scientific data provide the possibility for regional large-scale data acquisition. This study used distribution data provided by ornithologists and experienced birdwatchers that are included in the China Bird Report platform, to assess waterbird species diversity and composition similarities among different wetland subcategories in four provinces of Southwest China, from January 2014 to February 2018. The results showed that among 139 species recorded in the database, 94.96% were distributed in natural wetlands and 67.63% in artificial wetlands. Species richness of each waterbird order was higher in natural wetlands than in artificial wetlands. These findings indicate that natural wetlands are the main habitat for waterbirds, while artificial wetland could provide suitable habitats for most waterbirds. However, we need to take into account that the former could not be completely replaced by the latter. The result identifies the most important wetland subcategories: lacustrine wetlands, riverine wetlands, and marshy wetlands among the natural habitats, and reservoirs and human-made recreational water areas among the artificial habitats. Sustainable planning and management actions should consider the different functions and characteristics of all important wetland habitats to provide the most effective waterbirds protection outcomes.
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