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-. 肠道微生物群和水生毒理学: 环境健康的新概念[J]. 生态毒理学报, 2018, 13(5):
肠道微生物群和水生毒理学: 环境健康的新概念
The gut microbiome and aquatic toxicology: An emerging concept for environmental health
  
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中文摘要:
      高通量测序技术极大地方便了深度考察不同种群中宿主相关微生物群的组成和功能。研究表明微生物在动物包括人类的健康和疾病发病中扮演着必要的角色。微生物已成为环境毒理学中新兴的重要研究主题。这是因为微生物在免疫系统中起着重要的交互的作用,同时在化学解毒中也有作用。污染物扰动肠道微生物,引起胃肠组织的病理生理变化,导致一系列系统效应,致使营养摄入变差和肠道发炎。本文检索了关于环境污染物对水生物种微生物影响的文献,重点关注了肠道微生物。我们强调了脊柱动物宿主中的一些已知的肠道上皮细胞的主要蛋白,这些均是化合物破坏的靶标,这些蛋白可以与微生物直接对话。我们提出了一个有害结局路径(adverse outcome pathway)的总体框架,将肠道生态失调作为有害效应终点事件的主要贡献因子。我们展示了两个案例研究,分别是(1)纳米材料;(2)碳氢化合物,我们参考了Deepwater Horizon港口的石油泄漏事件, 生态失调在案例中展示了微生物的考察如何改善有害结局的研究。最后,我们提出了一些策略以建立化合物诱导的肠道生态失调与有害结局的关联。我们通过实验建立了特定微生物与肠道生态失调的关联。对毒物与微生物关系的深入研究将成为改善动物及人类健康的重大突破。 精选自Ondrej Adamovsky, Amanda N. Buerger, Alexis M. Wormington, Naomi Ector, Robert J. Griffitt, Joseph H. Bisesi Jr., Christopher J. Martyniuk. The gut microbiome and aquatic toxicology: An emerging concept for environmental health. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry,2018,37:2758-2775.
详情请见 https://doi.org/10.1002/etc.4249
  
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Ondrej Adamovsky, Amanda N. Buerger, Alexis M. Wormington, Naomi Ector, Robert J. Griffitt, Joseph H. Bisesi Jr., Christopher J. Martyniuk
英文摘要:
      High throughput sequencing has facilitated in depth investigations into the composition and function of host-associated microbiota in different species. Studies have revealed that the microbiome plays an essential role in the health and onset of diseases in all animals, including humans. The microbiome has emerged as a central theme in environmental toxicology, as microbes play a key, interactive role with the immune system, in addition to their role in chemical detoxification. Pathophysiological changes in the gastrointestinal tissue via perturbations by chemicals in the gut microbiota can lead to system-wide effects, resulting in poor nutrient uptake and gut inflammation. This critical review examines the literature on the effects of environmental contaminants on the microbiome of aquatic species, with a primary focus on the gut microbiome. We highlight some of the known major gut epithelium proteins in vertebrate hosts that are targets for chemical disruption, proteins that also directly cross-talk with the microbiome. These proteins are molecular targets and as such, we propose a general framework for an adverse outcome pathway that considers gut dysbiosis as a major contributing factor to adverse apical endpoints. We present two case studies that include (1) nanomaterials and (2) hydrocarbons with reference to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill to illustrate how investigations into the microbiome can improve understanding of adverse outcomes. Lastly, we suggest some strategies to functionally relate chemical-induced gut dysbiosis with adverse outcomes; these experiments are necessary in order to establish the link between specific microbes and gut dysbiosis. Further investigations into the toxicant-microbiome relationship may prove to be a major breakthrough for improving animal and human health moving forward.
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